Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2015, Article ID 682749, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/682749
Review Article

A Review on the Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Morphologies Studied via TEM

1Department of Physics, University of Tartu, Riia 142, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
2Tartu College, Tallinn University of Technology, Puiestee 78, 51008 Tartu, Estonia
3Department of Physics, University of Minho, 4800-058 Guimarães, Portugal

Received 29 August 2014; Accepted 15 October 2014

Academic Editor: Mangala P. Singh

Copyright © 2015 Protima Rauwel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. Hu, Y. Lan, J. Qu, X. Hu, and A. Wang, “Ag/AgBr/TiO2 visible light photocatalyst for destruction of azodyes and bacteria,” The Journal of Physical Chemistry B, vol. 110, no. 9, pp. 4066–4072, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. A. Anuj and K. B. Ishnava, “Plant mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using dried stem powder of Tinospora Cordifolia, its antibacterial activity and comparison with antibiotics,” International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. P849–P863, 2013. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. T. Anastas and J. C. Warner, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1998.
  4. P. Raveendran, J. Fu, and S. L. Wallen, “Completely “Green” Synthesis and stabilization of metal nanoparticles,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 125, no. 46, pp. 13940–13941, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Mann, VHC, New York, NY, USA, 1996.
  6. R. M. Slawson, J. T. Trevors, and H. Lee, “Silver accumulation and resistance in Pseudomonas stutzeri,” Archives of Microbiology, vol. 158, no. 6, pp. 398–404, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. F. D. Pooley, “Bacteria accumulate silver during leaching of sulphide ore minerals,” Nature, vol. 296, no. 5858, pp. 642–643, 1982. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. Klaus, R. Joerger, E. Olsson, and C.-G. Granqvist, “Silver-based crystalline nanoparticles, microbially fabricated,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 96, no. 24, pp. 13611–13614, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. N. Samadi, D. Golkaran, A. Eslamifar, H. Jamalifar, M. R. Fazeli, and F. A. Mohseni, “Intra/extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by an autochthonous strain of Proteus mirabilis isolated from photographic waste,” Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 247–253, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. O. V. Kharissova, H. V. R. Dias, B. I. Kharisov, B. O. Pérez, and V. M. J. Pérez, “The greener synthesis of nanoparticles,” Trends in Biotechnology, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 240–248, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. Murali, A. Absar, I. M. Khan, and K. Rajiv, “Biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles using fungi and actinomycetes,” Current Science, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 162–170, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  12. D. Mandal, M. E. Bolander, D. Mukhopadhyay, G. Sarkar, and P. Mukherjee, “The use of microorganisms for the formation of metal nanoparticles and their application,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 485–492, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. Mukherjee, A. Ahmad, D. Mandal et al., “Fungus-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their immobilization in the mycelial matrix: a novel biological approach to nanoparticle synthesis,” Nano Letters, vol. 1, no. 10, pp. 515–519, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. P. Mukherjee, A. Ahmad, D. Mandal et al., “Bioreduction of AuCl4 ions by the fungus, Verticillium sp. and surface trapping of the gold nanoparticles formed,” Angewandte Chemie—International Edition, vol. 40, no. 19, pp. 3585–3588, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. A. Ahmad, P. Mukherjee, S. Senapati et al., “Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Fusarium oxysporum,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 313–318, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. S. Balaji, S. Basavaraja, R. Deshpande, D. B. Mahesh, B. K. Prabhakar, and A. Venkataraman, “Extracellular biosynthesis of functionalized silver nanoparticles by strains of Cladosporium cladosporioides fungus,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 88–92, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. N. Durán, P. D. Marcato, O. L. Alves, G. I. H. de Souza, and E. Esposito, “Mechanistic aspects of biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by several Fusarium oxysporum strains,” Journal of Nanobiotechnology, vol. 3, no. 1, article 8, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. N. Vigneshwaran, A. A. Kathe, P. V. Varadarajan, R. P. Nachane, and R. H. Balasubramanya, “Biomimetics of silver nanoparticles by white rot fungus, Phaenerochaete chrysosporium,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 53, no. 1, pp. 55–59, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. C. Bhainsa and S. F. D'Souza, “Extracellular biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 160–164, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. Z. H. Naqvi, U. Kiran, M. I. Ali et al., “Combined efficacy of biologically synthesized silver nanoparticles and different antibiotics against multidrug-resistant bacteria,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 8, pp. 3187–3195, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. Mourato, M. Gadanho, A. R. Lino, and R. Tenreiro, “Biosynthesis of crystalline silver and gold nanoparticles by extremophilic yeasts,” Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications, vol. 2011, Article ID 546074, 8 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. Apte, D. Sambre, S. Gaikawad et al., “Psychrotrophic yeast Yarrowia lipolytica NCYC 789 mediates the synthesis of antimicrobial silver nanoparticles via cell-associated melanin,” AMB Express, vol. 3, article 32, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. Kowshik, S. Ashtaputre, S. Kharrazi et al., “Extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles by a silver-tolerant yeast strain MKY3,” Nanotechnology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 95–100, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Saravanan, T. Amelash, L. Negash et al., “Extracellular biosynthesis and biomedical application of silver nanoparticles synthesized from baker's yeast,” International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 822–828, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  25. G. Singaravelu, J. S. Arockiamary, V. G. Kumar, and K. Govindaraju, “A novel extracellular synthesis of monodisperse gold nanoparticles using marine alga, Sargassum wightii Greville,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 97–101, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. J. L. Gardea-Torresdey, E. Gomez, J. R. Peralta-Videa, J. G. Parsons, H. Troiani, and M. Jose-Yacaman, “Alfalfa sprouts: a natural source for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles,” Langmuir, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 1357–1361, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. S. Shankar, A. Ahmad, and M. Sastry, “Geranium leaf assisted biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles,” Biotechnology Progress, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 1627–1631, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. K. Mittal, Y. Chisti, and U. C. Banerjee, “Synthesis of metallic nanoparticles using plant extracts,” Biotechnology Advances, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 346–356, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. V. K. Sharma, R. A. Yngard, and Y. Lin, “Silver nanoparticles: Green synthesis and their antimicrobial activities,” Advances in Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 145, no. 1-2, pp. 83–96, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. Kesharwani, K. Y. Yoon, J. Hwang, and M. Rai, “Phytofabrication of silver nanoparticles by leaf extract of Datura metel: hypothetical mechanism involved in synthesis,” Journal of Bionanoscience, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 39–44, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. Huang, Q. Li, D. Sun et al., “Biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles by novel sundried Cinnamomum camphora leaf,” Nanotechnology, vol. 18, no. 10, Article ID 105104, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. M. Sathishkumar, K. Sneha, S. W. Won, C.-W. Cho, S. Kim, and Y.-S. Yun, “Cinnamon zeylanicum bark extract and powder mediated green synthesis of nano-crystalline silver particles and its bactericidal activity,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 73, no. 2, pp. 332–338, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. K. Mallikarjuna, G. Narasimha, G. R. Dillip et al., “Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ocimum leaf extract and their characterization,” Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 181–186, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. R. Vilchis-Nestor, V. Sánchez-Mendieta, M. A. Camacho-López, R. M. Gómez-Espinosa, M. A. Camacho-López, and J. A. Arenas-Alatorre, “Solventless synthesis and optical properties of Au and Ag nanoparticles using Camellia sinensis extract,” Materials Letters, vol. 62, no. 17-18, pp. 3103–3105, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. Kasthuri, K. Kathiravan, and N. Rajendiran, “Phyllanthin-assisted biosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles: a novel biological approach,” Journal of Nanoparticle Research, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 1075–1085, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. R. Bindhu and M. Umadevi, “Synthesis of monodispersed silver nanoparticles using Hibiscus cannabinus leaf extract and its antimicrobial activity,” Spectrochimica Acta—Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, vol. 101, pp. 184–190, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. N. Ahmad, S. Sharma, M. K. Alam et al., “Rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles using dried medicinal plant of basil,” Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 81–86, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. Arokiyaraj, M. V. Arasu, S. Vincent et al., “Rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from chrysanthemum indicum land its antibacterial and cytotoxic effects: an in vitro study,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 379–388, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. K. Murugan, B. Senthilkumar, D. Senbagam, and S. Al-Sohaibani, “Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using Acacia leucophloea extract and their antibacterial activity,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 2431–2438, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. Gurunathan, J. Raman, S. N. Abd Malek, P. A. John, and S. Vikineswary, “Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Ganoderma neo-japonicum Imazeki: a potential cytotoxic agent against breast cancer cells,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 8, pp. 4399–4413, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. S. S. Shankar, A. Ahmad, R. Pasricha, and M. Sastry, “Bioreduction of chloroaurate ions by geranium leaves and its endophytic fungus yields gold nanoparticles of different shapes,” Journal of Materials Chemistry, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 1822–1826, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. M. N. Nadagouda and R. S. Varma, “Green synthesis of silver and palladium nanoparticles at room temperature using coffee and tea extract,” Green Chemistry, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 859–862, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. M. Darroudi, M. B. Ahmad, A. H. Abdullah, and N. A. Ibrahim, “Green synthesis and characterization of gelatin-based and sugar-reduced silver nanoparticles,” International Journal of Nanomedicine, vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 569–574, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. H. Haiza, A. Azizan, A. H. Mohidin, and D. S. C. Halin, “Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using local honey,” Nano Hybrids, vol. 4, pp. 87–98, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  45. N. Nyoman Rupiasih, A. Aher, S. Gosavi, and P. B. Vidyasagar, “Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using latex extract of Thevetia peruviana: a novel approach towards poisonous plant utilization,” Journal of Physics: Conference Series, vol. 423, no. 1, Article ID 012032, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. P. Phanjom, A. Sultana, H. Sarma, J. Ramchiary, K. Goswami, and P. Baishya, “Plant-mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Elaeagnus latifolia leaf extract,” Digest Journal of Nanomaterials and Biostructures, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 1117–1123, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. K. Swamy, K. M. Sudipta, K. Jayanta, and S. Balasubramanya, “The green synthesis, characterization, and evaluation of the biological activities of silver nanoparticles synthesized from Leptadenia reticulata leaf extract,” Applied Nanoscience, pp. 1–9, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. M. M. H. Khalil, E. H. Ismail, K. Z. El-Baghdady, and D. Mohamed, “Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using olive leaf extract and its antibacterial activity,” Arabian Journal of Chemistry, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. H. A. Kiran Kumar, B. K. Mandal, K. Mohan Kumar et al., “Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Mimusops elengi seed extract mediated isotropic silver nanoparticles,” Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, vol. 130, pp. 13–18, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. A. Anuj and K. B. Ishnava, “Plant mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles by using dried stem powder of Tinospora cordifolia, its antibacterial activity and comparison with antibiotics,” International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 849–863, 2013. View at Google Scholar