Figure 4: Raman spectra of the (a) native bone and the interfacial tissue 5–10 µm from the (c) Ep and (e) Ep+An implant surfaces. (b) Osteocytes in the native bone are aligned parallel to the lamellar direction. The interface between the bone tissue contained within the (d) Ep and (f) Ep+An implant threads and the native bone outside the implant threads. Scale bars = 20 µm. (g) Raman spectra (y-axis shifted) for the three groups: bone, anodised, and electropolished. Inset in (g): Raman spectra (overlaid/not y-axis shifted, x-axis truncated) showing the half-maximum region of ν1 at 960 cm−1. The difference in full width at half maximum suggests minor differences in mineral crystallinity.