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Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2016, Article ID 2172365, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2172365
Research Article

Hydroxyapatite Whiskers Based Resin Composite versus Commercial Dental Composites: Mechanical and Biocompatibility Characterization

1Department of Electronic Engineering, Chemistry and Industrial Engineering, University of Messina, Contrada di Dio, 98166 Messina, Italy
2Department of Experimental, Specialized Medical-Surgical and Odontostomatological Sciences, University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria 1, 98125 Messina, Italy
3Department of Biomedical Sciences and Morpho-Functional Imaging, University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria 1, 98125 Messina, Italy
4Department of Civil Engineering, Computing, Construction, Environmental and Applied Mathematics, University of Messina, Contrada di Dio, 98166 Messina, Italy
5Department of Human Pathology, University of Messina, Via Consolare Valeria 1, 98125 Messina, Italy

Received 13 October 2015; Revised 6 January 2016; Accepted 12 January 2016

Academic Editor: Jun Liu

Copyright © 2016 L. Calabrese et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

A systematic evaluation of mechanical and biocompatibility properties of different volume fractions of hydroxyapatite whiskers in comparison with three commercial dental composites filled with micro- and nanosilica particles was carried out. Six groups with different hydroxyapatite whiskers mass fractions were taken into account in order to be compared with the performances of silica particles based composites group. Flexural properties were evaluated via a universal testing machine (2.5 kN Zwick Line) with a 2 kN load-cell (sensitivity 0.001 N). The test was replicated 10 times for the seven experimental groups to better identify statically the significance of the mechanical performances data. MTT quantitative colorimetric assay was performed in order to evaluate the mitochondrial activity of living cells exposed to different resin composites. Data obtained show better interfacial interaction with filler/matrix until 20 wt% of hydroxyapatite whiskers partially replaced silica particles filler. After this threshold, the mechanical performances decrease dramatically due to both the hydroxyapatite agglomerates formation and the low degree of resin conversion. In addition, biocompatibility test showed less cytotoxic effect with the addition of 20 wt% of hydroxyapatite in comparison with higher rates.