Table 5: Selected geometrical parameters available in Image Pro®-Plus 5.1 software, used during morphological analysis of selected features characterizing spherical melted chips.


Areapixelμm2Reports the area of each object (minus any holes).

PerimeterpixelμmMeasurement to report the length of the outline of each object using a polygonal outline.

Fractal dimensionReports the fractal dimension of the object’s outline.

SizelengthpixelμmReports the caliper length along a major/minor axis of the object.

Diametermin.pixelμmReports the length of the shortest/longest line joining two outline points and passing through the centroid.

Feretmin.pixelμmReports the longest/average caliper (Feret) length.

Radiusmin.pixelμmMinimum/Maximum distance between object’s centroid and outline.

RoundnessReports the roundness of each object. Circular objects will have a = 1; other shapes will have a roundness > 1.

IPP – Image Pro®-Plus, SI – International System of Units, Using this assumption, the authors adopted the following values: ideal spherical melted chip – = 1, near-spherical melted chip – = 1–1.5, semi-spherical melted chip – > 1.5.