Table 5: Selected geometrical parameters available in Image Pro®-Plus 5.1 software, used during morphological analysis of selected features characterizing spherical melted chips.

Parameter

Designation

Unit

Description

IPP

SI

Area

pixel

μm^{2}

Reports the area of each object (minus any holes).

Perimeter

pixel

μm

Measurement to report the length of the outline of each object using a polygonal outline.

Fractal dimension

—

—

Reports the fractal dimension of the object’s outline.

Size

length

pixel

μm

Reports the caliper length along a major/minor axis of the object.

width

pixel

μm

Diameter

min.

pixel

μm

Reports the length of the shortest/longest line joining two outline points and passing through the centroid.

max.

pixel

μm

Feret

min.

pixel

μm

Reports the longest/average caliper (Feret) length.

max.

pixel

μm

Radius

min.

pixel

μm

Minimum/Maximum distance between object’s centroid and outline.

max.

pixel

μm

Roundness

—

—

Reports the roundness of each object. Circular objects will have a = 1; other shapes will have a roundness > 1.

IPP – Image Pro®-Plus, SI – International System of Units, Using this assumption, the authors adopted the following values: ideal spherical melted chip – = 1, near-spherical melted chip – = 1–1.5, semi-spherical melted chip – > 1.5.