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Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2016, Article ID 8219437, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8219437
Research Article

Olive Stone Ash as Secondary Raw Material for Fired Clay Bricks

1Department of Chemical, Environmental, and Materials Engineering, Advanced Polytechnic School of Jaén, University of Jaén, Campus Las Lagunillas s/n, 23071 Jaén, Spain
2International University of La Rioja, Avenida La Paz, No. 137, Logroño, 26002 La Rioja, Spain
3Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Crystallography and Mineralogy, Affiliate Unit of the ICP-CSIC, Faculty of Sciences, University of Málaga, Campus de Teatinos, 29071 Málaga, Spain

Received 5 September 2016; Revised 9 November 2016; Accepted 27 November 2016

Academic Editor: Kaveh Edalati

Copyright © 2016 D. Eliche-Quesada et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

This work evaluates the effect of incorporation of olive stone ash, as secondary raw material, on the properties of fired clay bricks. To this end, three compositions containing 10, 20, and 30 wt% olive stone ash in a mixture of clays (30 wt% red, 30 wt% yellow, and 40 wt% black clay) from Spain were prepared. The raw materials, clay and olive stone ash, were characterized by means of XRD, XRF, SEM-EDS, and TG-TDA analysis. The engineering properties of the press molded specimens fired at 900°C (4 h) such as linear shrinkage, bulk density, apparent porosity, water absorption, and compressive strength were evaluated. The results indicated that the incorporation of 10 wt% of olive stone ash produced bricks with suitable technological properties, with values of compressive strength of 41.9 MPa but with a reduced bulk density, by almost 4%. By contrast, the incorporation of 20 wt% and 30 wt% sharply increased the water absorption as a consequence of the large amount of open porosity and low mechanical strength presented by these formulations, which do not meet the standards for their use as face bricks. The bricks do not present environmental problems according to the leaching test.