Table 1: The surface roughness of Ag (100), Ag (110), and Ag (111) crystals was quantitatively categorized into five different groups, that is, (A1) = 0.00–5.00 nm; (B1) = 5.01–10.00 nm; (C1) = 10.01–20.00 nm; (D1) = 20.01–30.00 nm; and (E1) = 30.01–45.00 nm. Their average were determined from the AFM analysis.

GroupMeasured average
/nm
Ag (100)Ag (110)Ag (111)

A13.2 ± 1
B16.6 ± 2
C112.8 ± 2
D126.5 ± 3
E136.2 ± 5