Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2017, Article ID 8285230, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/8285230
Research Article

Determination of Optical Properties of Thin Films from Ketteler-Helmholtz Dispersion Relations: Application to the Case of Ultraviolet Irradiated Zirconium Oxide

Groupe de Recherche sur les Couches Minces et la Photonique, Département de Physique et d’Astronomie, Université de Moncton, 18 avenue Antonine-Maillet, Moncton, NB, Canada E1A 3E9

Correspondence should be addressed to Serge Gauvin; ac.notcnomu@nivuag.egres

Received 30 March 2017; Revised 5 June 2017; Accepted 19 June 2017; Published 13 August 2017

Academic Editor: Angela De Bonis

Copyright © 2017 Jean Desforges et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. A. Macleod, Thin-Film Optical Filter, Taylor and Francis Group, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 4th edition, 2010.
  2. A. Piegari and F. Flory, Optical Thin Films and Coatings: from Materials to Applications, Woodhead Publishing, Elsevier, Cambridge, UK, 2013.
  3. O. Stenzel, Optical Coatings: Materials Aspects in Theory and Practice, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Germany, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  4. D. Poelman and P. F. Smet, “Methods for the determination of the optical constants of thin films from single transmission measurements: A critical review,” Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, vol. 36, no. 15, pp. 1850–1857, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. M. Perkins, B. B. Triplett, P. C. McIntyre, K. C. Saraswat, and E. Shero, “Thermal stability of polycrystalline silicon electrodes on ZrO2 gate dielectrics,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 81, no. 8, pp. 1417–1419, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. H. Jeong, I. S. Bae, Y. S. Shin, S.-B. Lee, H.-T. Kwak, and J.-H. Boo, “Physical and electrical properties of ZrO2 and YSZ high-k gate dielectric thin films grown by RF magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 475, no. 1-2, pp. 354–358, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. Wang, L. Zhao, N. H. Luu, D. Wang, and H. Nakashima, “Structural and electrical properties of Zr oxide film for high-k gate dielectrics by using electron cyclotron resonance plasma sputtering,” Applied Physics A, vol. 80, no. 8, pp. 1781–1787, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. Zhu, P. Chen, R. K. Y. Fu, W. Liu, C. Lin, and P. K. Chu, “Microstructure and electrical properties of Al2O3-ZrO2 composite films for gate dielectric applications,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 476, no. 2, pp. 312–316, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. Bizarro, J. C. Alonso, and A. Ortiz, “ZrAlO ternary oxide as a candidate for high-k dielectrics,” Materials Science in Semiconductor Processing, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 1090–1096, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. D. Ceresoli and D. Vanderbilt, “Structural and dielectric properties of amorphous ZrO2 and HfO2,” Physical Review B - Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, vol. 74, no. 12, Article ID 125108, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Filipescu, N. Scarisoreanu, V. Craciun et al., “High-k dielectric oxides obtained by PLD as solution for gates dielectric in MOS devices,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 253, no. 19, pp. 8184–8191, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. F. Sacconi, J. M. Jancu, M. Povolotskyi, and A. Di Carlo, “Full-band tunneling in high-κ dielectric MOS structures,” Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 47, no. 4-5, pp. 694–696, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. J. Yan, Y. Kuo, and J. Lu, “Zirconium-doped hafnium oxide high-k dielectrics with subnanometer equivalent oxide thickness by reactive sputtering,” Electrochemical and Solid-State Letters, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. H199–H202, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. X. Lao, R. M. Martin, and J. P. Chang, “Plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition of HfO2 and ZrO2 high-k thin films,” Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 488–496, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. L.-M. Chen, Y.-S. Lai, and J. S. Chen, “Influence of pre-deposition treatments on the interfacial and electrical characteristics of ZrO2 gate dielectrics,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 515, no. 7-8, pp. 3724–3729, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. S. B. Qadri, C. M. Gilmore, C. Quinn, E. F. Skelton, and C. R. Gossett, “Phase stability of ZrO2-Al2O3 thin films deposited by magnetron sputtering,” Physical Review B, vol. 39, no. 9, pp. 6234–6237, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Q. Zhang, X. Li, J. Shen, G. Wu, J. Wang, and L. Chen, “ZrO2 thin films and ZrO2/SiO2 optical reflection filters deposited by sol-gel method,” Materials Letters, vol. 45, no. 6, pp. 311–314, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. D. Zhang, J. Shao, D. Zhang, S. Fan, T. Tan, and Z. Fan, “Employing oxygen-plasma posttreatment to improve the laser-induced damage threshold of ZrO2 films prepared by the electron-beam evaporation method,” Optics Letters, vol. 29, no. 24, pp. 2870–2872, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. S. G. Wu, H. Y. Zhang, G. L. Tian, Z. L. Xia, J. D. Shao, and Z. X. Fan, “Y2O3 stabilized ZrO2 thin films deposited by electron beam evaporation: Structural, morphological characterization and laser induced damage threshold,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 253, no. 3, pp. 1561–1565, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. L. Liang, Y. Xu, L. Zhang, Y. Sheng, D. Wu, and Y. Sun, “Annealing effect on the optical properties and laser-induced damage resistance of solgel-derived ZrO2 films,” Journal of the Optical Society of America B, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 1066–1074, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. L. Liang, Y. Xu, D. Wu, and Y. Sun, “A simple sol-gel route to ZrO2 films with high optical performances,” Materials Chemistry and Physics, vol. 114, no. 1, pp. 252–256, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. Y. J. Guo, X. T. Zu, B. Y. Wang, X. D. Jiang, X. D. Yuan, and H. B. Lv, “Preparation of sol-gel ZrO2-SiO2 highly reflective multilayer films and laser-induced damage threshold characteristic,” Optik, vol. 122, no. 13, pp. 1140–1142, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. X. Li, X. Liu, Y. Zhao, J. Shao, and Z. Fan, “Laser-conditioning mechanism of ZrO2/SiO2 HR films with fitting damage probability curves of laser-induced damage,” Chinese Optics Letters, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 598–600, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. F. Stetter, R. Esselborn, N. Harder, M. Friz, and P. Tolles, “New materials for optical thin films,” Applied Optics, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 2315–2317, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. E. Ritter, “Optical film materials and their applications,” Applied Optics, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 2318–2327, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. D. Smith and P. Baumeister, “Refractive index of some oxide and fluoride coating materials,” Applied Optics, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 111–115, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. J. D. T. Kruschwitz and W. T. Pawlewicz, “Optical and durability properties of infrared transmitting thin films,” Applied Optics, vol. 36, no. 10, pp. 2157–2159, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. D. Mergel and M. Jerman, “Density and refractive index of thin evaporated films,” Chinese Optics Letters, vol. 8, pp. 67–72, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. A. Portinha, V. Teixeira, J. Carneiro, M. F. Costa, N. P. Barradas, and A. D. Sequeira, “Stabilization of ZrO2 PVD coatings with Gd2O3,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 188-189, no. 1-3, pp. 107–115, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. H. Suhail, G. M. Rao, and S. Mohan, “Studies on the properties of zirconia films prepared by direct current reactive magnetron sputtering,” Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 2675–2677, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. M. S. Wong, W. J. Chia, P. Yashar, J. M. Schneider, W. D. Sproul, and S. A. Barnett, “High-rate reactive d.c. magnetron sputtering of ZrOx coatings,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 86-87, no. 1, pp. 381–387, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. W. D. Sproul, M. E. Graham, M.-S. Wong, and P. J. Rudnik, “Reactive d.c. magnetron sputtering of the oxides of Ti, Zr, and Hf,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 89, no. 1-2, pp. 10–15, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. P. Yashar, J. Rechner, M. S. Wong, W. D. Sproul, and S. A. Barnett, “High-rate reactive sputtering of yttria-stabilized zirconia using pulsed d.c. power,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 94-95, pp. 333–338, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. K. Koski, J. Hölsä, and P. Juliet, “Properties of zirconium oxide thin films deposited by pulsed reactive magnetron sputtering,” Surface and Coatings Technology, vol. 120-121, pp. 303–312, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. B. Hobein, F. Tietz, D. Stöver, M. Cekada, and P. Panjan, “DC sputtering of yttria-stabilised zirconia films for solid oxide fuel cell applications,” Journal of the European Ceramic Society, vol. 21, no. 10-11, pp. 1843–1846, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. P. Gao, L. J. Meng, M. P. Dos Santos, V. Teixeira, and M. Andritschky, “Study of ZrO2/Al2O3 multilayers,” Vacuum, vol. 64, no. 3-4, pp. 267–273, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. Venkataraj, O. Kappertz, H. Weis, R. Drese, R. Jayavel, and M. Wuttig, “Structural and optical properties of thin zirconium oxide films prepared by reactive direct current magnetron sputtering,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 92, no. 7, pp. 3599–3607, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. M. Ngaruiya, O. Kappertz, S. H. Mohamed, and M. Wuttig, “Structure formation upon reactive direct current magnetron sputtering of transition metal oxide films,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 85, no. 5, pp. 748–750, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. S. Venkataraj, O. Kappertz, C. Liesch, R. Detemple, R. Jayavel, and M. Wuttig, “Thermal stability of sputtered zirconium oxide films,” Vacuum, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 7–16, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. D. H. Trinh, T. Kubart, T. Nyberg, M. Ottosson, L. Hultman, and H. Högberg, “Direct current magnetron sputtering deposition of nanocomposite alumina - zirconia thin films,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 516, no. 23, pp. 8352–8358, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. D. Pamu, K. Sudheendran, M. G. Krishna, K. C. J. Raju, and A. K. Bhatnagar, “Ambient temperature stabilization of crystalline zirconia thin films deposited by direct current magnetron sputtering,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 517, no. 5, pp. 1587–1591, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. P. J. Martin and A. Bendavid, “Properties of zirconium oxide films prepared by filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition and pulsed DC substrate bias,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 518, no. 18, pp. 5078–5082, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. R. Yusoh, M. Horprathum, P. Eiamchai, S. Chanyawadee, and K. Aiempanakit, “Determination of the thickness and optical constant of ZrO2 by spectroscopic ellipsometry and spectrophotometric method,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 8, pp. 223–227, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  44. R. Yusoh, M. Horprathum, P. Eiamchai, P. Chindaudom, and K. Aiempanakit, “Determination of optical and physical properties of ZrO2 films by spectroscopic ellipsometry,” Procedia Engineering, vol. 32, pp. 745–751, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. Ramanathan, G. D. Wilk, D. A. Muller, C.-M. Park, and P. C. McIntyre, “Growth and characterization of ultrathin zirconia dielectrics grown by ultraviolet ozone oxidation,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 79, no. 16, pp. 2621–2623, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. Ramanathan, P. C. McIntyre, J. Luning, P. Pianetta, and D. A. Muller, “Structural studies of ultrathin zirconia dielectrics,” Philosophical Magazine Letters, vol. 82, no. 9, pp. 519–528, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. Tsuchiya and S. Ramanathan, “Effect of photon irradiation on structure of yttria-doped zirconia thin films grown on semiconductor substrates,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 91, no. 25, Article ID 253104, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. G. Bruhat, Optique, Section 236, Masson and Cie, 6th edition, 1965.
  49. V. Lucarini, J. J. Saarinen, K.-E. Peiponen, and E. M. Vartiainen, “Kramers-Krönig Relations in Optical Materials Research,” Springer, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  50. S. Gauvin and J. Desforges, “A Self-Consistent Method for the Determination of the Complex Refractive Index of Arbitrary Absorptance Thin Films,” in Proceedings of the Frontiers in Optics, p. JTh2A.107, Rochester, New York, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  51. S. Gauvin, “Accurate computation of the Briot–Sellmeier and Briot–Cauchy chromatic dispersion coefficients from the transmittance spectrum of thin films of arbitrary absorptance,” Journal of the Optical Society of America A, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 1712–1720, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus