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Advances in Materials Science and Engineering
Volume 2017, Article ID 8723239, 23 pages
Review Article

A Review of Additive Mixed-Electric Discharge Machining: Current Status and Future Perspectives for Surface Modification of Biomedical Implants

1Centre for Intelligent Signal and Imaging Research, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia
2Mechanical Engineering Department, University Technology PETRONAS, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Perak, Malaysia
3School of Mechanical Engineering, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara, Punjab 144411, India
4Faculty of Machine Manufacturing & Industrial Management, Gheorghe Asachi Technical University of Iaşi, 59 A Prof. Dimitrie, Iaşi, Romania
5Manufacturing Section, Universiti Kuala Lumpur Malaysian Spanish Institute, Kulim Hi-Tech Park, 09000 Kedah, Malaysia

Correspondence should be addressed to Ahmad Majdi Abdul-Rani; ym.ude.ptu@idjam

Received 23 April 2017; Accepted 1 August 2017; Published 13 September 2017

Academic Editor: Patrice Berthod

Copyright © 2017 Abdul’Azeez Abdu Aliyu et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Surface treatment remained a key solution to numerous problems of synthetic hard tissues. The basic methods of implant surface modification include various physical and chemical deposition techniques. However, most of these techniques have several drawbacks such as excessive cost and surface cracks and require very high sintering temperature. Additive mixed-electric discharge machining (AM-EDM) is an emerging technology which simultaneously acts as a machining and surface modification technique. Aside from the mere molds, dies, and tool fabrication, AM-EDM is materializing to finishing of automobiles and aerospace, nuclear, and biomedical components, through the concept of material migrations. The mechanism of material transfer by AM-EDM resembles electrophoretic deposition, whereby the additives in the AM-EDM dielectric fluids are melted and migrate to the machined surface, forming a mirror-like finishing characterized by extremely hard, nanostructured, and nanoporous layers. These layers promote the bone in-growth and strengthen the cell adhesion. Implant shaping and surface treatment through AM-EDM are becoming a key research focus in recent years. This paper reports and summarizes the current advancement of AM-EDM as a potential tool for orthopedic and dental implant fabrication. Towards the end of this paper, the current challenges and future research trends are highlighted.