Table 3: Test results of the three specimens.

SpecimenPmax (kN)Umax (mm)Failure mode

CJ1−8.56−39.19Compressed buckling of the beam flange
CJ210.20−50.00Compressed buckling of the beam flange
CJ311.9248.57Compressed buckling of the beam flange

Pmax is the maximum load value documented in a test. Umax is the maximum displacement value documented at summit from sensor #5 in a test.