Table 4: Global displacement ductility values of test specimens.

ParameterPy (kN) (mm)Pmax (kN)Δmax (mm)Pu (kN) (mm)Mean value of μ

Q-1POS18.781.3918.782.4015.967.625.485.74
NEG−16.65−1.35−19.04−2.40−16.18−8.095.99
Q-2POS26.144.7740.739.6034.6216.243.403.27
NEG−29.09−5.21−46.25−12.00−39.31−16.353.14
Q-5POS25.845.5838.4016.8032.6438.836.966.82
NEG26.29−5.76−44.35−14.40−37.70−38.476.68
Q-7POS30.994.1738.8712.0033.0429.817.157.93
NEG−28.58−4.30−35.07−12.00−29.81−37.438.70

Note. POS: positive direction; NOG: negative direction. Py: the yield load; : the displacement corresponding to the yield load; Pmax: the peak load; Δmax: the displacement corresponding to the peak load; : determined as corresponding to a 15% drop of the peak load; Pu: the load corresponding to .