Prevalence of Anemia and Associated Factors among Secondary School Adolescent Girls in Jimma Town, Oromia Regional State, Southwest EthiopiaRead the full article
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Pregnancy Outcomes among Patients with Sickle Cell Disease in Brazzaville
Introduction. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is one of the most common genetic diseases in the world. It combines, in its homozygous form, chronic hemolytic anemia, vasoocclusive complications, and susceptibility to infections. It is well known that the combination of pregnancy and sickle cell disease promotes the occurrence of complications that are sometimes fatal for the mother and/or the fetus. Objective. The objective of the current study was to compare pregnancy outcomes among women with SCD with those of women without the diagnosis of SCD. Materials and methods. It was a case-control study carried out in four maternity hospitals in Brazzaville in 2 years (July 2017–June 2019). It concerned 65 parturients with SS homozygous SCD. The mode of childbirth and maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality were compared with those of 130 non-sickle cell pregnant women. Results. The average age was 27 years for SCD women and 31 years for non-SCD women. The average gestational age at delivery was 35 weeks for SCD women and 38 weeks for non-SCD women. From the logistic regression analysis using the comparison group as the reference group, there was excessive risk in SCD compared to non-SCD of infection (29.3% vs. 4.6%, OR = 21.7, 95% CI [7.6–62.7]; ), cesarean (63% vs. 35.4%, OR = 3.1, 95% CI [1.6–5.7]; ), prematurity (75.4% vs. 30.8%, OR = 8, 95% CI [3.0–23.2]; ), low birth weight (52.3% vs. 16.1%, OR = 4.7, 95% CI [2.4–9.4]; ), neonatal requiring admission to the intensive care unit (40.3% vs. 17.5%, OR = 3.2, 95% CI [1.6–6.3]; ), and neonatal death (21.5% vs. 4.8%, OR = 4.3, 95% CI [1.5–12.2]; ). Conclusion. The risk of pregnancy in patients with homozygous sickle cell anemia remains high, on both the maternal and fetal sides.
Blood Transfusion Frequency and Indications in Yemeni Children with Sickle Cell Disease
Background. Blood transfusion is an essential component in the care of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), but it might be associated with serious acute and delayed complications. This study was aimed to describe red cell transfusion patterns and indications among hospitalized SCD children in a low-resource setting. Patients and Methods. A retrospective, descriptive study of all children (≤16 years) with SCD who received blood transfusion therapy during their hospital admissions in the pediatric department at Al-Sadaqa Teaching Hospital in Aden, Yemen, for a period of one year. Results. Out of 217 hospitalized children with SCD, 169 (77.9%) were transfused and received 275 RBC transfusion episodes. The mean age of transfused children was 6.9 ± 4.6 years and 103 (60.9%) were males, with a male/female ratio of 1.6 : 1 (). Hemoglobin (Hb) levels were significantly lower in the transfused than in the nontransfused (Hb 5.5 ± 1.5 vs. 7.7 ± 1.5 g/dL, ). Pretransfusion Hb levels were ˂7.0 g/dL in 86.2% and ˂5.0 g/dL in 39.3% of patients. Single transfusion was given to 122 (72.2%) and 5 or more transfusions in 9 (4.15%) of patients on different occasions. Simple (top-up) transfusion was used in all transfusion events. Commonest indications for transfusion were anemic crises (41.1%), vasoocclusive crises (VOC) (13.8%), VOC with anemic event (11.3%), acute chest syndrome (8.7%), and stroke (7.3%). Conclusion. Intermittent blood transfusion remains a common practice for the management of children with acute SCD complications. Main indications were acute anemic crises, severe pain crises, ACS, and stroke. In limited resource settings, such as Yemen, conservative transfusion policy appears to be appropriate.
Prevalence and Associated Factors of Anemia among Reproductive-Aged Women in Sayint Adjibar Town, Northeast Ethiopia: Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study
Background. Globally, anemia affects one-fourth of the world population including 30% of nonpregnant reproductive-aged women. It has a number of causes including micronutrient deficiencies and chronic infections, inherited or acquired disorders of hemoglobin synthesis and red blood cell production, or survival alterations. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and associated factors of anemia among reproductive-aged women in Sayint Adjibar town, South Wollo Zone, Northeast Ethiopia. Methods. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted from February to April among 359 reproductive-aged women (RAW). Systematic random sampling technique was implemented to select study participants. Sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and reproductive histories of study participants were collected using the structured and pretested questionnaire. Capillary blood and stool samples were collected from each study participant for hemoglobin and parasitological analysis, respectively. Data were entered into Epi Info version 7 and transferred to SPSS version 20 for analysis. Both bivariable and multivariable binary logistic regression models were fitted to identify associated factors of anemia. value <0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Result. The median age of the study participants was 25 years. The overall prevalence of anemia was 24.2%. Among those anemic individuals, 49 (56.3%) were mildly anemic. Age category 36–49 years (AOR = 2.64; 95% CI: 1.05, 6.60), no formal educational status (AOR = 2.28; 95% CI: 1.06, 4.92), food insecurity (AOR = 1.92; 95% CI: 1.01–3.65), and body mass index of above 25 kg/m2 (AOR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.08–0.87) were found to be statistically significant with anemia. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia in this study was found as a moderate public health problem. The prevalence was significantly associated with women who had no formal education and were of older age group and those women living with household food insecurity and with higher body mass index. Therefore, it is better to design appropriate interventional strategies to reduce reproductive-aged women anemia. These include information, education, and communication activities focused on reproductive-aged women with no formal education and life-cycle-focused food security rather than targeted to only infants and young children or pregnant women.
Magnitude, Severity, and Associated Factors of Anemia among Under-Five Children Attending Hawassa University Teaching and Referral Hospital, Hawassa, Southern Ethiopia, 2016
Background. Anemia is a widespread public health problem associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. Infants, under-5-year-old children, and pregnant women have greater susceptibility to anemia. The magnitude and associated risk factors for anemia vary in different settings. The study aimed to assess the magnitude, severity, and associated factors of anemia at Hawassa University Teaching and Referral hospital, Hawassa, southern Ethiopia. Methods. In a hospital-based cross-sectional study, a total of 422 under-five children were included. Sociodemographic data and other predisposing factors were collected by structured questionnaire. Venous blood samples were collected and analyzed for hemoglobin determination using a Cell-Dyn 1800 automated analyzer. Stool samples were collected and processed using direct wet mount and formol-ether concentration method to detect intestinal parasites. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20 statistical packages. Binary and multiple logistic regressions were computed to assess factors associated with anemia. value less than 0.05 was taken as statistically significant. Result. The overall prevalence of anemia was found to be 41.7%. The mean hemoglobin level was 10.59 g/dl. Anemia was of mild, moderate, and severe type in 6.6%, 19%, and 16.1% of the children, respectively. Children in the age group 6–23 months (AOR = 2.04 (95% CI: 1.13, 3.69)), and mothers having no formal education (AOR = 1.73 (95% CI: 0.99, 3.02)) were identified as associated factors for anemia. Conclusion. The prevalence of anemia among the study subjects was 41.7% indicative of the fact that anemia is an important public health problem. It was associated with the child’s age, residence, mother’s education level, and intestinal parasite (Ascaris lumbricoides). It clearly indicates that there should be well integrated public health interventions to improve the health status that needs to be prioritized to prevent anemia among children under five years of age.
Screening for Anemia and Iron Deficiency in the Adult Portuguese Population
Anemia and iron deficiency (ID) can impair quality of life and socioeconomic development. We evaluated the prevalence of anemia and ID in the adult Portuguese population in real-life contexts by gender, age, and pregnancy status. We performed a cross-sectional screening in adult individuals in mainland Portugal from 2013 to 2017. Participants completed a survey about demographics and signs or symptoms compatible with anemia, and ID and hemoglobin and ferritin concentrations were determined by point-of-care tests. We estimated and compared prevalence ratios (PR) of anemia and ID using Poisson regression with robust variance and the Wald chi-square test. We collected data from 11,030 individuals (26% men, 64% nonpregnant women, and 10% pregnant women). We found anemia in 51.8% (95% CI 50.1–53.4%) of nonpregnant women in fertile age, 46.6% (95% CI 44.7–48.6%) of nonpregnant women >51 years, 38.2% (95% CI 35.4–41.1%) of pregnant women, and 33.3% (95% CI 31.6–35.1%) of men. The prevalence of ID was 72.9% (95% CI 71.4–74.4%) in nonpregnant women in fertile age, 50.5% (95% CI 48.5–52.4%) in nonpregnant women >51 years, 94.8% (95% CI 93.3–96.0%) in pregnant women, and 28.9% (95% CI 27.3–30.6%) in men. We found significant associations between the prevalence of anemia or ID and nonpregnant women (PR: 1.50, 95% CI 1.42–1.59 or PR: 2.21, 95% CI 2.09–2.35, respectively), manifestation of signs or symptoms (PR: 1.19, 95% CI 1.53–1.23 or PR: 1.22, 95% CI 1.18–1.26), pregnant women (PR: 0.74, 95% CI 0.68–0.80 or PR: 1.30, 95% CI 1.27–1.33), and nonpregnant women ≤51 years (PR: 1.11, 95% CI 1.06–1.17 or PR: 1.42, 95% CI 1.36–1.48). In conclusion, anemia and ID represent moderate to severe public health problems, particularly among women in fertile age and in 3rd trimester, of pregnancy emphasizing the need to raise the public and health professionals’ awareness of these problems and their prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.
Association between Helicobacter pylori Infection and Occurrence of Anemia among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Care in Kulito Health Center, Halaba Zone, South Ethiopia, 2018
Background. Anemia in pregnancy is defined as a hemoglobin (Hb) concentration of less than 11 grams (gm)/deciliter (dl) in venous blood. Globally, it affects 1.62 billion people. In developing countries, anemia is a major cause of maternal and child morbidity and mortality. Globally, anemia contributes to 20% of all maternal deaths. Nearly 50% of the world’s population is estimated to be infected with Helicobacter pylori (HP). High prevalence of HP among pregnant women was also reported in developing countries than developed ones. The association between HP infection and occurrence of anemia is not well known in Ethiopia. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the association between anemia and Helicobacter pylori infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care follow-up in Kulito Health Center, Halaba Zone, South Ethiopia. Methods. Institution-based cross-sectional study was employed. Systematic random sampling procedure was employed to select 236 pregnant women who attended antenatal care at Kulito Health Center. An interviewer-administered questionnaire supplemented by laboratory tests was used to obtain the data. The collected data were analyzed by using SPSS version 20.0. Results. The prevalence of anemia among antenatal care attendant pregnant women of Kulito Health Center was 27.5% with 36 (15.2%) of mild, 29 (12.3%) of moderate, and no severe cases of anemia. The overall prevalence of HP infection among study participants was found to be 129 (54.7%) (95% CI: 47.9–61.4). Factors significantly associated with anemia were presence of HP infection (AOR = 3.064, 95% CI: 1.336 7.027), low interpregnancy gap (AOR = 2.863, 95% CI: 1.245–6.582), being on the third trimester (AOR = 6.457; 95% CI: 1.276–32.729), and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) level 21 cm (AOR = 2.595, 95% CI: 1.044–6.450). Conclusion. This study revealed that anemia and HP infection were highly prevalent among pregnant women attending the antenatal follow-up clinic in Kulito Health Center. HP infection, low interpregnancy gap, being on the third trimester, and MUAC less than 21 cm were the independent factors associated with anemia. Recommendation. Pregnant women should be aware that anemia is a problem that can be prevented by early prevention and treatment of HP infection and undernutrition, using family planning to widen the interpregnancy gap. Further experimental studies are warranted to determine the cause and effect of the association between anemia and HP infection.