Microcytic and Malarial Anaemia Prevalence in Urban Children ≤15 Years in the Mount Cameroon Area: A Cross-Sectional Study on Risk FactorsRead the full article
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Anemia and Contributing Factors in Severely Malnourished Infants and Children Aged between 0 and 59 Months Admitted to the Treatment Centers of the Amhara Region, Ethiopia: A Multicenter Chart Review Study
Background. Anemia among severely malnourished children is a double burden that could make the treatment outcome of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) more unfavorable. The burden and the factors are, however, uncovered among children in the Amhara region. Therefore, the study was aimed at determining the prevalence of anemia and identifying contributing factors in severely malnourished children aged between 0 and 59 months admitted to the treatment centers of the Amhara region referral hospitals. Methods. A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted that included 1,301 infants and children, who developed SAM and were admitted to the three referral hospitals of the Amhara region. Data were extracted using a data extraction checklist. The binary logistic regression analysis was employed to show an association between the dependent and independent variables. Multicollinearity was assessed using the variance inflation factor (VIF) and no problem was detected (overall VIF = 1.67). The presence of association was declared based on the -value (≤0.05), and the adjusted odds ratio with its respective 95% confidence interval was used to report the direction, as well as the strength of association. Results. About 41.43% (95% CI: 38.78%–44.13%) of severely malnourished infants and children have developed anemia, of which around half (47%) of them were under six months old. Rural residence (AOR = 1.56; 95% CI: 1.14–2.12) and HIV infection (AOR = 2.00; 95% CI: 1.04–3.86) were significantly associated with higher odds of anemia. Furthermore, being exclusively breastfed (AOR = 0.57; 95% CI 0.39–0.83) remarkably reduced the likelihood of anemia. Conclusions. This data confirms that anemia among severely malnourished infants and children is a public health problem in the Amhara region. Infants younger than six months were at a higher risk of anemia. Being a rural resident and contracting HIV infection have elevated the occurrence of anemia, whereas being exclusively breastfed decreased the risk. Therefore, the study gives an insight to policymakers and planners to strengthen the existing exclusive breastfeeding practice. Strategies being practiced to prevent HIV transmission and early detection, as well as treatment, should also be strengthened. Furthermore, mothers/caretakers of infants and children residing in the rural areas deserve special attention through delivering nutrition education.
Anaemia in the Hospitalized Elderly in Tanzania: Prevalence, Severity, and Micronutrient Deficiency Status
Introduction. Anaemia is a common problem in sub-Saharan Africa. While most literature has focused on children, women of childbearing age, and pregnant women, data for the elderly population are relatively scarce. Anaemia exhorts negative consequences to functional ability of elderly patients, both physically and cognitively. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia, severity, and micronutrient deficiency status in the elderly hospitalized patients in Tanzania. Methods. A total of 156 hospitalized adults aged 60 years and above were enrolled in this study. A structured questionnaire was used to capture sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Blood samples were collected, and a complete blood count, serum cobalamin, serum ferritin, and serum folate levels were measured to assess anaemia and micronutrient deficiency status in all participants who had anaemia. Results. The prevalence of anaemia was 79.5% (124/156) with severe anaemia in 33.9% (42/124) of participants, moderate anaemia in 42.7% (53/124) of participants, and 23.4% (29/124) of all participants had mild anaemia. Micronutrient deficiency was found in 14.5% (18/124) of all participants with anaemia. Combined deficiency (either iron and vitamin B12 deficiency or iron and folate deficiency) was the most common micronutrient deficiency anaemia with a frequency of 33.3% (6/18), followed by isolated iron and folate deficiencies at equal frequency of 27.8% (5/18) and vitamin B12 deficiency at 11.1% (2/18). Conclusion. The prevalence of anaemia in the hospitalized elderly population is high warranting public health attention and mostly present in moderate and severe forms. Micro-nutrient deficiency anaemia is common in this age group and is mostly due to combined micronutrient deficiency.
Establishment of Hematological Reference Values among Healthy Adults in Bamenda, North West Region of Cameroon
The use of the reference range of values of a laboratory test is highly significant in diagnostic accuracy. However, race and ethnic variations may affect the safe use of reference ranges from a different setting/population. Because the establishment of reference ranges for the Cameroonian population will possibly improve the quality of health care, this study was designed to establish hematological reference ranges among healthy adults in Bamenda, North West region of Cameroon. This was a cross-sectional study carried out within the period of five months from February 2020 to June 2020, at the Bamenda Regional Hospital. A total of 350 (139 females and 211 males) study participants who met the inclusion criteria were included in the study. The Urit 3300 autoanalyzer (Urit Medical Electronic (Group) Co., Ltd, Guilin, China) was used to analyze the hematological parameters. The general health questionnaire for donors, for verification of reference range study and laboratory tests, was used for data collection. Descriptive statistics were used to calculate reference ranges, means, and medians at 95% confidence intervals. Maximum and minimum reference ranges were computed at 97.5th and 2.5th percentiles. The nonparametric test (Mann–Whitney test) was used to determine the significance of the difference in hematological values between the male and female groups. Three (MID%, LYM#, and MID#) out of the 19 hematological parameters were verified, while sixteen (WBC, LYM%, GRAN%, GRAN#, RBC, HGB, HCT%, MCV, MCH, MCHC, RDW_CV, RDW_SD, PLT, MPV, PDW, and PCT%) were established. The currently used reference intervals do not represent the population of the North West region. Therefore, other regional hospitals in Cameroon should establish reference intervals applicable to their respective regions.
Factors Associated with Anemia among Pregnant Women of Underprivileged Ethnic Groups Attending Antenatal Care at Provincial Level Hospital of Province 2, Nepal
Background. This study aims at determining the factors associated with anemia among pregnant women of underprivileged ethnic groups attending antenatal care at the provincial level hospital of Province 2. Methods. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was carried out in Janakpur Provincial Hospital of Province 2, Southern Nepal. 287 pregnant women from underprivileged ethnic groups attending antenatal care were selected and interviewed. Face-to-face interviews using a structured questionnaire were undertaken. Anemia status was assessed based on hemoglobin levels determined at the hospital’s laboratory. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to identify the factors associated with anemia. Analyses were performed using IBM SPSS version 23 software. Results. The overall anemia prevalence in the study population was 66.9% (95% CI, 61.1–72.3). The women from most underprivileged ethnic groups (Terai Dalit, Terai Janajati, and Muslims) were twice more likely to be anemic than Madhesi women. Similarly, women having education lower than secondary level were about 3 times more likely to be anemic compared to those with secondary level or higher education. Women who had not completed four antenatal visits were twice more likely to be anemic than those completing all four visits. The odds of anemia were three times higher among pregnant women who had not taken deworming medication compared to their counterparts. Furthermore, women with inadequate dietary diversity were four times more likely to be anemic compared to women having adequate dietary diversity. Conclusions. The prevalence of anemia is a severe public health problem among pregnant women of underprivileged ethnic groups in Province 2. Being Dalit, Janajati, and Muslim, having lower education, less frequent antenatal visits, not receiving deworming medication, and having inadequate dietary diversity are found to be the significant factors. The present study highlights the need of improving the frequency of antenatal visits and coverage of deworming program in ethnic populations. Furthermore, promoting a dietary diversity at the household level would help lower the prevalence of anemia. The study findings also imply that the nutrition interventions to control anemia must target and reach pregnant women from the most-marginalized ethnic groups and those with lower education.
Prevalence of Anaemia and Its Associated Factors among Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital
Background. Anaemia is one of the commonest blood disorders seen in patients with diabetes. In Ethiopia, chronic illnesses are tremendously raising with their complications. But very little research has been conducted, particularly on anaemia among diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. Therefore, this study aimed at assessing the prevalence of anaemia and associated factors among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients in Northwest Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional study design was employed at University of Gondar Comprehensive Specialized Hospital from March 1 to April 15, 2019, among 372 type 2 diabetes mellitus patients (T2DM). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was fitted, and the corresponding adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% CI were used to identify factors associated with anaemia. Level of significance was declared at the value less than 0.05. Results. The study revealed 8.06% (95% CI: 5.68–11.31%) of the participants were anaemic. Being male (AOR = 2.74, CI: 1.02, 7.38), combined type of treatment (AOR = 8.38, CI: 1.66, 42.25), having diabetes-related microvascular complications (AOR = 3.24, CI: 1.14, 9.26), and hypertension (AOR = 0.01, CI: 0.002, 0.06) were the significant factors associated with anaemia. Conclusions. The finding of the current study revealed low prevalence of anaemia among T2DM patients. Sex, type of treatment, diabetes-related microvascular complications, and hypertension were factors associated with anaemia. Assessment of haemoglobin levels among T2DM patients may help to prevent ensuing microvascular complications. Incorporate anaemia screening into the routine assessment of diabetic complication particularly for those who are hypertensive and took combined treatment to allow early appreciation and treatment of anaemia and later improve the overall care of patients with diabetes.
Genotype-Phenotype Correlation of G6PD Mutations among Central Thai Children with G6PD Deficiency
Background. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common X-linked inherited erythroenzymopathy in Thailand. The clinical and hematological manifestations of G6PD deficiency are variable. Objective. This study aimed to characterize the genotype-phenotype correlation of G6PD mutations in Thai pediatric patients who were followed-up in Phramongkutklao Hospital, a tertiary center in central Thailand. Material and Method. A total of 102 children including 73 males (71.6%) and 29 females (28.4%) were included in our study. Mutation analysis was performed by direct DNA sequencing of all coding exons of the G6PD gene. Ninety-one patients (89.2%) were presented with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and 11 patients (10.8%) were presented with acute hemolytic anemia beyond the neonatal period. Results. Molecular analysis of the G6PD gene in 102 G6PD-deficient Thai children identified 12 different mutations. G6PD Viangchan (871G > A) and G6PD Canton (1376G > T) were the first (46.2%) and the second (15.4%) most common identified mutations among both male and female G6PD-deficient individuals, respectively. All affected males were hemizygous for G6PD mutations and had an average G6PD level of 16.7 ± 11.5 (3–76) IU/ml.RBC. Majority of female patients (27 in 29, 93.1%) were heterozygous for G6PD mutations and had an average G6PD level of 133.6 ± 43.4 (9–195) IU/ml.RBC. Two female patients (6.9%) were either homozygous or compound heterozygous for the mutations and had G6PD level in the affected male range (35 and 10 IU/ml.RBC). Only 1 in 27 heterozygous females (3.7%) had G6PD level in the affected male range (9 IU/ml.RBC) which is possibly explained by nonrandom X-chromosome inactivation. The correlation of genotypes, G6PD levels, and clinical phenotypes was not demonstrated in our study in which all of the included G6PD-deficient patients were presented with neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and acute hemolytic anemia, since the genotype-phenotype correlation is normally demonstrated in chronic nonspherocytic hemolytic anemia (CNSHA) G6PD-deficient individuals. Conclusion. This study characterizes the molecular heterogeneity of G6PD variants causing G6PD deficiency in Thai children. Our study demonstrated the efficiency of direct DNA sequencing which can identify 12 missense mutations in Thai children.