Determinants of Anemia among HIV-Positive Children on Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy Attending Hospitals of North Wollo Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia, 2019: A Case-Control StudyRead the full article
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Effect of Interleukin and Hepcidin in Anemia of Chronic Diseases
Background. Anemia of chronic disease (ACD) also termed as the anemia of inflammation has been found to be associated with inflammations, chronic infections, and cancers, particularly in old age. Recent studies revealed that interleukin-6 (IL-6), a proinflammatory cytokine, and hepcidin, an antimicrobial hepatic peptide, play a key role in ACD pathogenesis. Patients and Methods. The study included 40 subjects with chronic diseases and 40 normal subjects of the same age group. Red cell indices, levels of IL-6 and hepcidin, and iron profile were measured in all participants using Bayer ADVIA 120, VITROS 5600, Integrated System/2008, and ELISA assay, respectively. Results. The level of hemoglobin was considerably less in patients of chronic diseases referred to as “cases” than the normal subjects or “controls” (8.7 ± 1.5 vs. 13.2 ± 0.9). Red blood corpuscle (RBC) count, hematocrit (HCT) level, serum iron, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC), and serum total iron-binding capacity (TIBC) were found to be significantly lower in the cases as compared to controls (). Serum IL-6 and hepcidin levels were substantially higher in the cases than in the controls ( and , respectively). Conclusion. This study detected a significant increase in serum IL-6 and hepcidin levels in patients with ACD than the controls. These findings offer an insight into the role played by both cytokine and peptide in the pathogenesis of ACD and thus provide a rationale for future use of novel drugs inhibiting their effects on iron metabolism.
An Analysis of Societal Determinant of Anemia among Adolescent Girls in Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan
Societal determinants of health are of recognized importance for understanding the causal association of society and health of an individual. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) is a challenging public health problem across the globe instigating from a broader sociocultural background. It is more prevalent among pregnant women, children under the age of five years, and adolescent girls. Adolescent girls are vulnerable to develop IDA because of additional nutritional demand of the body needed for growth spurt, blood loss due to onset of menarche, malnourishment, and poor dietary iron intake. In this study, we explore the societal determinants of anemia among adolescent girls in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (AJK), Pakistan. A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Muzaffarabad division of AJK on randomly selected 626 adolescent girls. The data were collected using a pretested self-administered interview schedule comprising mainly closed-ended questions with a few open-ended questions. Descriptive statistics was computed for describing the data, and bivariate regression and logistic regression were used to determine the association of anemia with its societal determinants. Multiple linear regression is used to determine the relationship of different determinants (independent variables) with the hemoglobin level (dependent variable) of the respondents. The prevalence of anemia among adolescent girls is 47.9%, of which 47.7% have mild anemia, 51.7% have moderate anemia, and 5.7% have severe anemia, which reveals that anemia is a severe public health problem among adolescent girls in the study area. The findings aver that anemia occurrence was significantly associated with the respondent’s and her parental education, economic well-being, prevalence of communicable diseases, menstrual disorder, exercise habits, meals regularity, and type of sewerage system.
District Effect Appraisal in East Sub-Saharan Africa: Combating Childhood Anaemia
Background. Anaemia in children is a significant health problem that receives little attention. This study aimed at determining the factors significantly associated with anaemia in children aged 6 to 59 months in Kenya, Malawi, Tanzania, and Uganda while accounting for the spatial heterogeneity within and between the districts of the four countries. In addition, the performance of the districts with regard to their impact on anaemia was assessed and ranked. Methods. A generalised additive mixed model with a spatial effect based on the geographical coordinates of the clusters was used. A district-level random effect was included to further account for the heterogeneity as well as to rank the performance of the districts based on the best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP). Results. The results depicted significant spatial heterogeneity between and within the districts of the countries. After accounting for such spatial heterogeneity, child-level characteristics (gender, malaria test result, and mother’s highest education level), household-level characteristics (household size, household’s wealth index Z-score, the type of toilet facility available, and the type of place of residence), and the country of residence were found to be significantly associated with the child’s anaemia status. There was a significant interaction between the type of place of residence and the country of residence. Based on the BLUP for the district-level random effect, the top 3 best- and worst-performing districts within each country were identified. Conclusion. The ranking of the performance of the districts allows for the worst-performing districts to be targeted for further research in order to improve their anaemia control strategies, as well as for the best-performing districts to be identified to further determine why they are performing better and then to use these districts as role models in efforts to overcome childhood anaemia.
REGAIN STUDY: Retrospective Study to Assess the Effectiveness, Tolerability, and Safety of Ferric Carboxymaltose in the Management of Iron Deficiency Anemia in Pregnant Women
Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) during pregnancy arises because of preexisting inadequate stores or complex physiological changes and can lead to serious maternal and fetal complications. Oral iron, either as iron sulfate or fumarate, with or without folic acid, is the most commonly used treatment for IDA in pregnancy. Intravenous (IV) iron has a role in the treatment of IDA in pregnancy, particularly in women who present late, display severe anemia (Hb ≤ 9 g/dL), or risk factors, and are intolerant/noncompliant of oral iron. Previously, administration of IV iron was minimal, owing to potentially serious anaphylactic reactions. Recently, new IV iron products have been developed, offering better compliance, tolerability, efficacy, and a good safety profile. Our study aimed to assess the effectiveness, safety, and tolerability of IV ferric carboxymaltose (FCM) in the treatment of IDA in pregnant women in the UAE. Data from 1001 pregnant women who received at least one administration of FCM (500, 1000, or 1500 mg) during their second or third trimester of pregnancy (2 years backward from study initiation) were collected retrospectively from electronic medical records at Corniche Hospital, Abu Dhabi, UAE. Results showed that 41.4% of the women were able to achieve an increase of ≥2 g/dL in blood hemoglobin overall. A change of ≥2 g/dL was achieved by 27.5% of women administered a dose of 500 mg, 39.2% of women administered a dose of 1000 mg, and 63.9% of women administered a dose of 1500 mg of IV FCM. This indicates a directly proportional relationship between increasing IV FCM dose and the increase of ≥2 g/dL in blood hemoglobin. A total of 7 (0.7%) women reported mild, nonserious adverse events during the study. Within the limits of this retrospective study, IV FCM therapy was safe and effective in increasing the mean hemoglobin of pregnant women with IDA.
Anemia Prevalence after Iron Supplementation among Pregnant Women in Midwifes Practice of Primary Health Care Facilities in Eastern Indonesia
Background. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in pregnant women is common, and iron supplementation is given during pregnancy to reduce birth complication. This study aimed to explore the prevalence of anemia and type of anemia after iron supplementation among pregnant women in the eastern part of Indonesia. Methods. A cross-sectional study design was conducted between January and March 2019 in three Primary Health Care (PHC) facilities at Kupang, West Timor. After consent, pregnant women who had taken their iron supplementation for at least 3 months were asked for iron pills intake by using a self-designed questionnaire and by counting the pills leftover. Complete blood count examination was performed, and the type of anemia was assessed using Shine and Lal index (SLI; MCV MCV MCH/100) to determine whether anemia was due to iron deficiency or β-thalassemia trait (β-TT). In a subset of iron tablets distributed in the PHCs, Fe-concentration was measured. Results. Of 102 pregnant women included, only 25.5% had taken the pills with a pill count of >80%. Interestingly, Fe-concentration in the pills from three different PHC facilities varied between 75% and 100%. After iron supplementation, however, anemia was detected in 34.3%, and based on SLI, 14.7% was suspected because of iron deficiency and 19.6% was suspective of β-TT. Of note, nonanemic pregnant women (17.6%) had also low SLI, suggesting β-TT or other hemoglobinopathies. Conclusion. Assessment of Shine and Lal index as the first step to screen the type of anemia in pregnant women from a limited area is of potential value, especially because Indonesia is located in the thalassemia belt area. An integrative approach and counseling among pregnant women with β-TT and their partners will increase thalassemia awareness and optimal birth management.
Risk Factors of Anaemia among Children under Five Years in the Hohoe Municipality, Ghana: A Case Control Study
Background. Anaemia is one of the major causes of death among children under five years in Ghana. We examined the risk factors of anaemia among children under five years in the Hohoe Municipality, Ghana. Methods. This facility-based matched case control study recruited 210 children (70 cases and 140 controls) aged 6 to 59 months. Stratified and simple random sampling techniques were used to select mothers attending Child Welfare Clinic (CWC) for the screening of their children. Data were collected using a semistructured questionnaire. Finger prick blood was collected to estimate the haemoglobin (Hb) level and thick film was prepared to determine malaria parasitaemia. Axillary temperature was measured using an +electronic thermometer and anthropometric measurements were done using a weighing scale and inelastic tape measure. Continuous variables were presented as means and standard deviations and categorical variables as frequencies and proportions. Conditional logistic regression was used to determine the strength of association between the dependent and the independent variables. Statistical significance was considered at p value of <0.05. Results. The prevalence of anaemia was high (53.8%), while children whose mothers received iron supplementation during pregnancy were 7.64 times more likely to be anaemic compared with those who did not [AOR=7.64 (95% CI:1.41-41.20.93); p=0.018]. Children with poor dietary diversity were 9.15 times more likely to have anaemia [AOR=9.15 (95% CI: 3.13-26.82); p< 0.001]; and children whose mothers were farmers and traders were 83% [AOR = 0.17 (95% CI: 0.05-0.60); p=0.006] and 79% [AOR=0.21 (95% CI: 0.06-0.74); p=0.014], respectively, less likely to have anaemia. Conclusion. The biologic, intermediate, and underlying factors that were significantly associated with anaemia comprised maternal iron supplementation, poor dietary diversity, farmers, and traders. Given that iron supplementation during pregnancy did not protect children against anaemia, we recommend the child’s nutritional dietary diversity is encouraged.