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Anemia
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 918916, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/918916
Review Article

Role of Extracellular Hemoglobin in Thrombosis and Vascular Occlusion in Patients with Sickle Cell Anemia

Thrombosis Research Division, Cardiovascular Research Section, Department of Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, One Baylor Plaza, N1319, Houston, TX 77030, USA

Received 15 August 2010; Revised 5 November 2010; Accepted 22 November 2010

Academic Editor: Fernando F. Costa

Copyright © 2011 Zhou Zhou et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Sickle cell anemia (SCA) is a common hemolytic disorder caused by a gene mutation in the β-globin subunit of hemoglobin (Hb) and affects millions of people. The intravascular hemolysis releases excessive amount of extracellular hemoglobin (ECHb) into plasma that causes many cellular dysfunctions in patients with SCA. ECHb scavenges NO which promotes crisis events such as vasoconstriction, thrombosis and hypercoagulation. ECHb and its degradation product, heme, are known to cause oxidative damage to the vessel wall and stimulate the expression of adhesive protein ligands on vascular endothelium. Our study shows that ECHb binds potently to VWF—largest multimeric glycoprotein in circulation—through the A2-domain, and significantly inhibits its cleavage by the metalloprotease ADAMTS13. Furthermore, a subpopulation of VWF multimers bound to ECHb exists in significant amount, accounting for about 14% of total plasma VWF, in SCD patients. The Hb-bound VWF multimers are resistant to ADAMTS13, and are hyperactive in aggregating platelets. Thus, the data suggest that Hb-bound VWF multimers are ultralarge and hyperactive because they are resistant to the protease. The Hb-bound VWF multimers are elevated parallely with the level of ECHb in patients' plasma, and is associated with the pathogenesis of thrombosis and vascular occlusion in SCA.