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Anemia
Volume 2012, Article ID 238731, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/238731
Research Article

Diagnosis of Fanconi Anemia: Chromosomal Breakage Analysis

Department of Clinical Genetics, VU University Medical Center, Van der Boechorststraat 7, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Received 22 December 2011; Accepted 21 March 2012

Academic Editor: Stefan Meyer

Copyright © 2012 Anneke B. Oostra et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare inherited syndrome with diverse clinical symptoms including developmental defects, short stature, bone marrow failure, and a high risk of malignancies. Fifteen genetic subtypes have been distinguished so far. The mode of inheritance for all subtypes is autosomal recessive, except for FA-B, which is X-linked. Cells derived from FA patients are—by definition—hypersensitive to DNA cross-linking agents, such as mitomycin C, diepoxybutane, or cisplatinum, which becomes manifest as excessive growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest, and chromosomal breakage upon cellular exposure to these drugs. Here we provide a detailed laboratory protocol for the accurate assessment of the FA diagnosis as based on mitomycin C-induced chromosomal breakage analysis in whole-blood cultures. The method also enables a quantitative estimate of the degree of mosaicism in the lymphocyte compartment of the patient.