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Volume 2012, Article ID 723520, 13 pages
Review Article

Sickling Cells, Cyclic Nucleotides, and Protein Kinases: The Pathophysiology of Urogenital Disorders in Sickle Cell Anemia

1Laboratory of Multidisciplinary Research, São Francisco University (USF), 12916-900 Bragança Paulista, SP, Brazil
2Hematology and Hemotherapy Center, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), 13083-970 Campinas, SP, Brazil

Received 23 January 2012; Revised 16 April 2012; Accepted 22 April 2012

Academic Editor: Solomon F. Ofori-Acquah

Copyright © 2012 Mário Angelo Claudino and Kleber Yotsumoto Fertrin. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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