Aquaculture Nutrition
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Acceptance rate27%
Submission to final decision62 days
Acceptance to publication22 days
CiteScore6.300
Journal Citation Indicator1.100
Impact Factor3.5

Effects of Dietary Aflatoxin B1 on Hybrid Grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus ♀ × Epinephelus lanceolatus ♂) Growth, Intestinal Health, and Muscle Quality

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 Journal profile

Aquaculture Nutrition provides a global perspective on the nutrition of all cultivated aquatic animals. Topics range from extensive aquaculture to laboratory studies of nutritional biochemistry and physiology.

 Editor spotlight

Chief Editor, Erik-Jan Lock, is Research Director for Nutrition and Feed Technology at Nofima and Professor at the University of Bergen. He previously worked at the Institute of Marine Research and has experience across several fields such as mineral nutrition and new food resources.

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Research Article

A Comparative Study on Effects of Three Butyric Acid-Producing Additives on the Growth Performance, Non-specific Immunity, and Intestinal Microbiota of the Sea Cucumber Apostichopus japonicus

The providers of butyric acid, Clostridium butyricum (CB), sodium butyrate (SB), and tributyrin (TB), have been extensively studied as aquafeed additives in recent years. However, no comparative study has been reported on the probiotic effects of CB, SB, and TB as feed additives on sea cucumber (Apostichopus japonicus). A 63-day feeding trial was performed to assess the effects of dietary live cells of C. butyricum (CB group, the basal diet supplemented with 1% CB), sodium butyrate (SB group, the basal diet supplemented with 1% SB), and tributyrin (TB group, the basal diet supplemented with 1% TB) on the growth, non-specific immunity, and intestinal microbiota of A. japonicus with a basal diet group as the control. Results indicated that all three additives considerably increased A. japonicus growth, with dietary CB having the optimal growth-promoting effect. Of the seven non-specific enzyme parameters measured in coelomocytes of A. japonicus (i.e., the activities of phagocytosis, respiratory burst, superoxide dismutase, alkaline phosphatase, acid phosphatase, catalase, and lysozyme), dietary CB, SB, and TB considerably increased the activities of six, five, and six of them, respectively. The immune genes (Aj-p105, Aj-p50, Aj-rel, and Aj-lys) expression in the mid-intestine tissues of A. japonicus was significantly increased by all three additives. The CB group had the highest expression of all four genes. Additionally, the relative expression of Aj-p105, Aj-p50, and Aj-lys genes was significantly up-regulated in the three additive groups after stimulation with inactivated Vibrio splendidus. Dietary CB enhanced the intestinal microbial diversity and richness in A. japonicus while dietary TB decreased them. Meanwhile, dietary CB, SB, and TB significantly enhanced the abundance of Firmicutes, unclassified_f_Rhodobacteraceae, and Proteobacteria, respectively, while dietary CB and SB reduced the abundance of Vibrio. Dietary CB and SB improved the stability of microbial ecosystem in the intestine of A. japonicus. In contrast, dietary TB appeared to have a negative effect on the stability of intestinal microbial ecosystem. All three additives improved the intestinal microbial functions associated with energy production and immunity regulation pathways, which may contribute directly to growth promotion and non-specific immunity enhancement in A. japonicus. Collectively, in terms of enhancing growth and non-specific immunity, as well as improving intestinal microbiota, dietary live cells of C. butyricum exhibited the most effective effects in A. japonicus.

Research Article

Combined Replacement of Fishmeal and Fish Oil by Poultry Byproduct Meal and Mixed Oil: Effects on the Growth Performance, Body Composition, and Muscle Quality of Tiger Puffer

This study aimed to evaluate the effects of combined replacement of fishmeal (FM) and fish oil (FO) with poultry byproduct meal (PBM) and mixed oil (MO, poultry oil: coconut oil = 1 : 1) on growth performance, body composition and muscle quality of tiger puffer (Takifugu rubripes). Fish with an average initial body weight of 14.29 g were selected for the feeding experiment. FM accounting for 0%, 5%, and 10% of the diet was replaced by PBM. For each grade of FM replacement, 5% FO or MO was used as added oil. The six experimental diets were designated as FO-FM, MO-FM, FO-5PBM, MO-5PBM, FO-10PBM, and MO-10PBM, respectively. Each treatment was performed in triplicate with 30 fish per replicate. The feeding period was 45 days. There was no significant difference in growth performance among the groups. Dietary supplementation of both PBM and MO had marginal effects on whole-fish proximate composition, except that dietary MO supplementation significantly increased the liver moisture content. In serum, there were no significant differences in contents of triglyceride, total cholesterol, total bile acid, and protein carbonyl among groups, but the malondialdehyde content was reduced by MO. The fatty acid composition in fish mirrored those in the diets, but the omega-3 sparing effects of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acid in MO can still be observed. Dietary PBM and MO had marginal effects on free amino acid composition and texture of fish muscle, but exerted complicated effects on the muscle volatile flavor compound composition. In conclusion, combined fishmeal (10% of the diet) and fish oil (5% of the diet) replacement with poultry byproduct and mixed oil (poultry oil + coconut oil) had no adverse effects on the growth performance and body proximate composition of farmed tiger puffer. However, these replacements changed the muscle flavor compound profile.

Research Article

The P4’ Peptide-Carrying Bacillus subtilis in Cottonseed Meal Improves the Chinese Mitten Crab Eriocheir sinensis Innate Immunity, Redox Defense, and Growth Performance

This study developed a recombinant Bacillus subtilis to carry the LGSPDVIVIR peptide (cmP4) isolated from the hydrolyzed products of cottonseed meal with excellent antioxidant and immune-enhancing properties in vitro. It was carried as a tandem of five cmP4 peptides (cmP4’) to be stably expressed on a large scale. Then, its effectiveness was evaluated in Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) based on growth performance, redox defense, and innate immunity. A total of 280 crabs (mean body weight: 41.40 ± 0.14) were randomly assigned to seven diets including a control one (without B. subtilis) and six experimental ones with different doses (107,108, and 109 CFU/kg) of unmodified and recombinant B. subtilis, respectively, for 12 weeks. Each diet was tested in four tanks of crabs (10/tank). In terms of bacterial dosages, the final weight (FW), weight gain (WG), hemolymph and hepatopancreatic activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), lysosome (LZM), acid phosphatase (ACP) and alkaline phosphatase (AKP), and hepatopancreatic transcriptions of cat, mitochondrial manganese superoxide dismutase (mtmnsod), thioredoxin-1 (trx1), and prophenoloxidase (propo) all increased significantly with increasing B. subtilis dosages, while hemolymph and hepatopancreatic malondialdehyde (MDA) content and the transcriptions of toll like receptors (tlrs), NF-κB-like transcription factor (relish), and lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α factor (litaf) all decreased remarkably. In terms of bacterial species, the recombinant B. subtilis group obtained significantly high values of FW, WG, hemolymph, and hepatopancreatic activities of SOD, CAT, LZM, ACP, and AKP, and the transcriptions of mtmnsod, peroxiredoxin 6 (prx6), and propo compared with the unmodified B. subtilis, while opposite results were noted in hemolymph and hepatopancreatic MDA content and the transcriptions of tlrs, relish, and litaf. These results indicated that dietary supplementation with 109 CFU/kg of recombinant B. subtilis can improve the growth performance, redox defense, and nonspecific immunity of E. sinensis.

Research Article

Evaluation of Dietary Essential Amino Acid Supplementation on Growth, Digestive Capacity, Antioxidant, and Intestine Health of the Juvenile Redclaw Crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus

The present study was an 8-week feeding trial investigating the effects of lysine and threonine supplementation in vegetable-based diets on growth, antioxidative capacity, and gut microbiota of juvenile redclaw crayfish, Cherax quadricarinatus (initial weight 11.52 ± 0.23 g). The lysine and threonine were supplemented to formulate five isonitrogenous (37%) and isolipidic (9%) diets containing 0% (control), 0.2% lysine (L0.2), 0.2% threonine (T0.2), 0.4% lysine (L0.4), and 0.4% threonine (T0.4), respectively. Compared to the control, weight gain rate (WGR) and specific growth rate (SGR) of C. quadricarinatus significantly increased with increasing dietary lysine and threonine supplementation from 0.2% to 0.4% (). Hepatopancreas trypsin activity significantly increased with increasing levels of lysine and threonine in diets (). However, the pepsin, lipase, and amylase activities were not affected by dietary levels of lysine and threonine (). Compared with the control, crayfish in T0.4 and L0.4 showed significantly higher glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity (), lower alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity, and lower malondialdehyde (MDA) content (). Supplementation with 0.4% lysine significantly changed the composition of the gut microbiota (), which showed a significantly increased relative abundance of Proteobacteria and decreased Firmicutes, Actinomycetes, and Pontomyces (). The PICRUSt analysis demonstrated that the abundance of the metabolism and cellular processes pathways in the L0.4 group were markedly decreased compared with the control (). Meanwhile, a tighter interaction of the microbiota community in crayfish was observed in the T0.4 experimental group. In conclusion, these results suggested that dietary supplementation with 0.4% threonine could significantly promote growth and improve microbial health in juvenile C. quadricarinatus.

Research Article

Effects of Dietary Phytol Supplementation on Growth Performance, Immunological Parameters, Intestinal Bacteria, and Prevention of Oxidative Stress Following Transportation of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus

Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, (2.00 ± 0.02 g) were reared in 16 70-L tanks (40 individual/tank) and fed diets (approx. 345 g/kg protein, approx. 87 g/kg crude fat) containing 0 (CTL), 75 (PH-75), 150 (PH-150), and 300 (PH-300) mg/kg phytol (n = 4). After 60 days of feeding (4% daily), growth performance, humoral immune parameters, and gut bacteria were analyzed. Also, hepatic antioxidant parameters were determined before and after the fish were transported in plastic bags for 6 hr. The results showed that PH-75 exhibited the highest final weight (), weight gain (), feed intake (), feed efficiency (), plasma lysozyme activity (), and intestinal Lactobacillus sp. population (), among the treatments. The highest plasma alternative complement activity () and the lowest intestinal total viable bacteria () were observed in PH-75 and PH-150. The highest plasma alkaline phosphatase activities were observed in PH-75 and PH-300 (). The highest blood leukocyte (), monocyte (), and eosinophil () were observed in PH-300, while the highest blood neutrophil was observed in all phytol treatments (). The highest hepatic lipid peroxidation was observed in PH-300, whereas PH-75 and PH-150 showed the lowest values (). The highest hepatic reduced glutathione was observed in PH-75, also PH-150 exhibited significant elevation in this parameter, compared to CTL (). Transportation led to significant elevations in the hepatic antioxidant enzymes’ activities in CTL, PH-75, and PH-150; the highest activities were related to PH-75 and PH-150 treatments, which had also the highest post-transportation survivals (). In conclusion, phytol is a suitable feed supplement for Nile tilapia, improving growth performance and welfare, particularly at 75 mg/kg.

Research Article

Comparison of Lysophospholipids and Bile Acids on the Growth Performance, Lipid Deposition, and Intestinal Health of Largemouth Bass (Micropterus salmoides)

Lysophospholipids (LPLs) and bile acids (BA) are commonly used as emulsifiers in aquaculture. This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of LPLs or BA on the growth performance, lipid deposition, and intestinal health of largemouth juveniles. Fish were randomly allotted into three groups in quadruplicate and fed with a basal diet (CON) or diets containing 300 mg/kg LPLs (LPLs), or 300 mg/kg commercially available BA product (BA) for 8 weeks. The results showed that compared with the control group, LPLs and BA supplemented groups showed a higher weight gain trend, and LPLs supplementation promoted the protein deposition in fish body. Both BA and LPLs supplementations helped to maintain liver health by decreasing the activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in serum. Besides, LPLs supplementation decreased overall lipid deposition in terms of mesenteric fat index and liver lipid content. Furthermore, LPLs supplementation showed unique advantage in improving intestinal barrier, as characterized by the increased villus length and higher expression of the tight junction protein zo-1 expression. LPLs supplementation also increased the alpha diversity index and the abundances of Proteobacteria in the intestinal microbiota which is positively correlated with the abundance of SCFA in the gut. These findings will promote the application of novel feed additives and especially provide a basis for the rational selection of emulsifiers in the aquaculture industry.

Aquaculture Nutrition
Publishing Collaboration
More info
Wiley Hindawi logo
 Journal metrics
See full report
Acceptance rate27%
Submission to final decision62 days
Acceptance to publication22 days
CiteScore6.300
Journal Citation Indicator1.100
Impact Factor3.5
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