Figure 2: Optoelectrofluidic concentration and patterning of nanospheres. (a) Fluorescent polymeric nanoparticles and quantum dots using optically induced ACEO flows (adapted with permission from Chiou et al. [43] Copyright 2008 IEEE). (b) Voltage-dependent concentration of fluorescent polymeric nanoparticles using a laser-induced electrothermal (ET) effect (Williams et al. [44]—reproduced by permission of The Royal Society of Chemistry). (c) Dynamic concentration and patterning of metal nanoparticles using a Joule heating-induced ET effect and DEP-mediated immobilization (adapted with permission from Jamshidi et al. [45], Copyright 2009 American Chemical Society).