Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in OptoElectronics
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 804646, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/804646
Research Article

Germanium Doping to Improve Carrier Mobility in CdO Films

Department of Physics, College of Science, University of Bahrain, P.O. Box 32038, Sakhir, Bahrain

Received 16 January 2013; Accepted 12 March 2013

Academic Editor: Jianguo Lu

Copyright © 2013 A. A. Dakhel. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. Calnan and A. N. Tiwari, “High mobility transparent conducting oxides for thin film solar cells,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 518, no. 7, pp. 1839–1849, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. Z. Zhao, D. L. Morel, and C. S. Ferekides, “Electrical and optical properties of tin-doped CdO films deposited by atmospheric metalorganic chemical vapor deposition,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 413, no. 1-2, pp. 203–211, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. M. Carballeda-Galicia, R. Castanedo-Pérez, O. Jiménez-Sandoval, S. Jiménez-Sandoval, G. Torres-Delgado, and C. I. Zúñiga-Romero, “High transmittance CdO thin films obtained by the sol-gel method,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 371, no. 1, pp. 105–108, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. M. Burbano, D. O. Scanlon, and G. W. Watson, “Sources of conductivity and doping limits in CdO from hybrid density functional theory,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 133, no. 38, pp. 15065–15072, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  5. A. W. Metz, J. R. Ireland, J. G. Zheng et al., “Transparent conducting oxides: texture and microstructure effects on charge carrier mobility in MOCVD-derived CdO thin films grown with a thermally stable, low-melting precursor,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 126, no. 27, pp. 8477–8492, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. A. A. Dakhel, “Effect of thallium doping on the electrical and optical properties of CdO thin films,” Physica Status Solidi (A), vol. 205, no. 11, pp. 2704–2710, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  7. Y. Dou, R. G. Egdell, T. Walker, D. S. L. Law, and G. Beamson, “N-type doping in CdO ceramics: a study by EELS and photoemission spectroscopy,” Surface Science, vol. 398, no. 1-2, pp. 241–258, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. A. Wang, J. R. Babcock, N. L. Edleman et al., “Indium-cadmium-oxide films having exceptional electrical conductivity and optical transparency: clues for optimizing transparent conductors,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 98, no. 13, pp. 7113–7116, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. R. Asahi, A. Wang, J. R. Babcock et al., “First-principles calculations for understanding high conductivity and optical transparency in InxCd1-xO films,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 411, no. 1, pp. 101–105, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. A. Dakhel, “Transparent conducting properties of samarium-doped CdO,” Journal of Alloys and Compounds, vol. 475, no. 1-2, pp. 51–54, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  11. A. A. Dakhel, “Investigation on high carrier mobility in chromium incorporated CdO thin films on glass,” International Journal of Thin Films Science and Technology, vol. 1, pp. 25–33, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  12. A. A. Dakhel, “Electrical and optical investigations on Tungsten-incorporated CdO thin films,” Journal of Electronic Materials, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 2405–2410, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. A. A. Dakhel, “Structural, optical and electrical measurements on boron-doped CdO thin films,” Journal of Materials Science, vol. 46, no. 21, pp. 6925–6931, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. R. D. Shannon, “Revised effective ionic radii and systematic studies of interatomic distances in halides and chalcogenides,” Acta Crystallographica A, vol. 32, part 5, pp. 751–767, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. M. Jiang, Z. Wang, and Z. Ning, “Study of structural and optical properties of Ge doped ZnO films,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 517, no. 24, pp. 6717–6720, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. Y. B. Lv, Y. Dai, K. Yang et al., “Density functional investigation of structural, electronic and optical properties of Ge-doped ZnO,” Physica B, vol. 406, no. 20, pp. 3926–3930, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. Powder Diffraction File, Joint Committee for Powder Diffraction Studies (JCPDS) file No. 05-0640.
  18. E. F. Kaelble, Ed., Handbook of X-Rays for Diffraction, Emission, Absorption, and Microscopy, McGraw-Hill, New York, NY, USA, 1967.
  19. R. S. Ajimsha, A. K. Das, B. N. Singh, P. Misra, and L. M. Kukreja, “Correlation between electrical and optical properties of Cr:ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition,” Physica B, vol. 406, no. 24, pp. 4578–4583, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  20. N. Wongcharoen, T. Gaewdang, and T. Wongcharoen, “Electrical properties of Al-doped CdO thin films prepared by thermal evaporation in vacuum,” Energy Procedia, vol. 15, pp. 361–370, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. M. Chen, Z. L. Pei, X. Wang et al., “Intrinsic limit of electrical properties of transparent conductive oxide films,” Journal of Physics D, vol. 33, no. 20, article 2538, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  22. D. H. Zhang and H. L. Ma, “Scattering mechanisms of charge carriers in transparent conducting oxide films,” Applied Physics A, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 487–492, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  23. W. Q. Hong, “Extraction of extinction coefficient of weak absorbing thin films from special absorption,” Journal of Physics D, vol. 22, no. 9, article 1384, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  24. J. Tauc and F. Abelesn, Eds., Optical Properties of Solids, North Holland, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1969.
  25. V. V. Afanasev, A. Stesmans, A. Delabie, F. Bellenger, M. Housse, and M. Meuris, “Electronic structure of GeO2-passivated interfaces of (100)Ge with Al2O3 and HfO2,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 92, no. 2, Article ID 022109, 3 pages, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. J. I. Pankove, Optical Processes in Semiconductors, Dover, New York, NY, USA, 1975.
  27. Y. Z. Zhang, J. G. Lu, Z. Z. Ye et al., “Effects of growth temperature on Li–N dual-doped p-type ZnO thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 254, no. 7, pp. 1993–1996, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. A. A. Dakhel, “Optoelectronic properties of Eu- and H-codoped CdO films,” Current Applied Physics, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 11–15, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar