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Advances in Operations Research
Volume 2016, Article ID 7968792, 13 pages
Research Article

Constructing a Travel Risks’ Evaluation Model for Tour Freelancers Based on the ANP Approach

1Department of Business Administration, Ming Chuan University, 5F, No. 130, Jihe Road, Taipei City 11162, Taiwan
2Department of Tourism Management, Ta Hwa University of Science and Technology, No. 1, Dahua Road, Qionglin Shiang Hsinchu County 30740, Taiwan

Received 31 December 2015; Accepted 28 March 2016

Academic Editor: Mhand Hifi

Copyright © 2016 Chin-Tsai Lin and Shih-Chieh Hsu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study constructs a new travel risks’ evaluation model for freelancers to evaluate and select tour groups by considering the interdependencies of the evaluation criteria used. First of all, the proposed model adopts the Nominal Group Technique (NGT) to identify suitable evaluation criteria for evaluating travel risks. Six evaluation criteria and 18 subcriteria are obtained. The six evaluation criteria are financial risk, transportation risk, social risk, hygiene risk, sightseeing spot risk, and general risk for freelancer tour groups. Secondly, the model uses the analytic network process (ANP) to determine the relative weight of the criteria. Finally, examples of group package tours (GPTs) are used to demonstrate the travel risk evaluation process for this model. The results show that the Tokyo GPT is the best group tour. The proposed model helps freelancers to effectively evaluate travel risks and decision-making, making it highly applicable to academia and tour groups.