Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Orthopedics
Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 919153, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/919153
Review Article

Operative Outcomes for Cervical Myelopathy and Radiculopathy

1Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Cork University Hospital, Wilton, Cork, Ireland
2Department of Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery, Cappagh National Orthopaedic Hospital, Finglas, Dublin 11, Ireland

Received 28 March 2011; Accepted 16 August 2011

Academic Editor: F. Cumhur Öner

Copyright © 2012 J. G. Galbraith et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. W. F. Young, “Cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a common cause of spinal cord dysfunction in older persons,” American Family Physician, vol. 62, no. 5, pp. 1064–1070, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. J. Bednarik, Z. Kadanka, L. Dusek et al., “Presymptomatic spondylotic cervical cord compression,” Spine, vol. 29, no. 20, pp. 2260–2269, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. L. M. Teresi, R. B. Lufkin, and M. A. Reicher, “Asymptomatic degenerative disk disease and spondylosis of the cervical spine: MR imaging,” Radiology, vol. 164, no. 1, pp. 83–88, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  4. I. Nikolaidis, I. P. Fouyas, P. A. Sandercock, and P. F. Statham, “Surgery for cervical radiculopathy or myelopathy,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 1, Article ID CD001466, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. M. Bono, G. Ghiselli, T. J. Gilbert et al., “An evidence-based clinical guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of cervical radiculopathy from degenerative disorders,” Spine Journal, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 64–72, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. M. J. Ebersold, M. C. Pare, and L. M. Quast, “Surgical treatment for cervical spondylitic myelopathy,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 82, no. 5, pp. 745–751, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. H. N. Herkowitz, L. T. Kurz, and D. P. Overholt, “Surgical management of cervical soft disc herniation: a comparison between the anterior and posterior approach,” Spine, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1026–1030, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. K. Houten, P. R. Cooper, E. C. Benzel, V. K. H. Sonntag, V. C. Traynelis, and U. Batzdorf, “Laminectomy and posterior cervical plating for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy and ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament: effects on cervical alignment, spinal cord compression, and neurological outcome,” Neurosurgery, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 1081–1088, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. G. J. Kaptain, N. E. Simmons, R. E. Replogle, and L. Pobereskin, “Incidence and outcome of kyphotic deformity following laminectomy for cervical spondylotic myelopathy,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 93, no. 2, pp. 199–204, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Y. Kato, M. Iwasaki, T. Fuji, K. Yonenobu, and T. Ochi, “Long-term follow-up results of laminectomy for cervical myelopathy caused by ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 89, no. 2, pp. 217–223, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. J. Hale, K. I. Gruson, and J. M. Spivak, “Laminoplasty: a review of its role in compressive cervical myelopathy,” Spine Journal, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. S289–S298, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. G. Fehlings, P. R. Cooper, and T. J. Errico, “Posterior plates in the management of cervical instability: long-term results in 44 patients,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 341–349, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. M. Halvorsen, B. Lied, M. E. Harr et al., “Surgical mortality and complications leading to reoperation in 318 consecutive posterior decompressions for cervical spondylotic myelopathy,” Acta Neurologica Scandinavica, vol. 123, no. 5, pp. 358–365, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. R. J. Komotar, J. Mocco, and M. G. Kaiser, “Surgical management of cervical myelopathy: indications and techniques for laminectomy and fusion,” Spine Journal, vol. 6, no. 6, pp. S252–S267, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. P. A. Anderson, M. B. Henley, M. S. Grady, P. X. Montesano, and H. R. Winn, “Posterior cervical arthrodesis with AO reconstruction plates and bone graft,” Spine, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. S72–S79, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. R. B. Snow and H. Weiner, “Cervical laminectomy and foraminotomy as surgical treatment of cervical spondylosis: a follow-up study with analysis of failures,” Journal of Spinal Disorders, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 245–251, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. Miyazaki and Y. Kirita, “Extensive simultaneous multisegment laminectomy for myelopathy due to the ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the cervical region,” Spine, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 531–542, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. Yonenobu, N. Hosono, M. Iwasaki, M. Asano, and K. Ono, “Neurologic complications of surgery for cervical compression myelopathy,” Spine, vol. 16, no. 11, pp. 1277–1282, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. R. L. Saunders, H. J. Pikus, and P. Ball, “Four-level cervical corpectomy,” Spine, vol. 23, no. 22, pp. 2455–2461, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. Y. Mikawa, J. Shikata, and T. Yamamuro, “Spinal deformity and instability after multilevel cervical laminectomy,” Spine, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 6–11, 1987. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. Matsunaga, T. Sakou, and K. Nakanisi, “Analysis of the cervical spine alignment following laminoplasty and laminectomy,” Spinal Cord, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 20–24, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. J. G. Heller, D. H. Silcox, and C. E. Sutterlin, “Complications of posterior cervical plating,” Spine, vol. 20, no. 22, pp. 2442–2448, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. C. Huang, F. P. Girardi, A. R. Poynton, and F. P. Cammisa, “Treatment of multilevel cervical spondylotic myeloradiculopathy with posterior decompression and fusion with lateral mass plate fixation and local bone graft,” Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 123–129, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. Perez-Lopez, A. Isla, F. Alvarez, M. A. Sarmiento, P. Garcia-Raya, and M. Perez-Alvarez, “Efficacy of arthrodesis in the posterior approach of cervical myelopathy: comparative study of a series of 36 cases,” Neurocirugia, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 316–324, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  25. E. Wada, S. Suzuki, A. Kanazawa, T. Matsuoka, S. Miyamoto, and K. Yonenobu, “Subtotal corpectomy versus laminoplasty for multilevel cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a long-term follow-up study over 10 years,” Spine, vol. 26, no. 13, pp. 1443–1447, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  26. M. Okada, A. Minamide, T. Endo et al., “A prospective randomized study of clinical outcomes in patients with cervical compressive myelopathy treated with open-door or french-door laminoplasty,” Spine, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1119–1126, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. A. Seichi, K. Takeshita, I. Ohishi et al., “Long-term results of double-door laminoplasty for cervical stenotic myelopathy,” Spine, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 479–487, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. I. Kihara, T. Umebayashi, and M. Hoshimaru, “Technical improvements and results of open-door expansive laminoplasty with hydroxyapatite implants for cervical myelopathy,” Neurosurgery, vol. 57, no. 4, supplement, pp. S-348–S-355, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. K. Suda, K. Abumi, M. Ito, Y. Shono, K. Kaneda, and M. Fujiya, “Local kyphosis reduces surgical outcomes of expansive open-door laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy,” Spine, vol. 28, no. 12, pp. 1258–1262, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. K. Ratliff and P. R. Cooper, “Cervical laminoplasty: a critical review,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 98, no. 3, supplement, pp. 230–238, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. K. Takeuchi, T. Yokoyama, S. Aburakawa et al., “Axial symptoms after cervical laminoplasty with C3 laminectomy compared with conventional C3-C7 laminoplasty: a modified laminoplasty preserving the semispinalis cervicis inserted into axis,” Spine, vol. 30, no. 22, pp. 2544–2549, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. T. Takeuchi and Y. Shono, “Importance of preserving the C7 spinous process and attached nuchal ligament in French-door laminoplasty to reduce postoperative axial symptoms,” European Spine Journal, vol. 16, no. 9, pp. 1417–1422, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. T. Shiraishi, K. Fukuda, Y. Yato, M. Nakamura, and T. Ikegami, “Results of skip laminectomy—minimum 2-year follow-up study compared with open-door laminoplasty,” Spine, vol. 28, no. 24, pp. 2667–2672, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. H. Sakaura, N. Hosono, Y. Mukai, T. Fujimori, M. Iwasaki, and H. Yoshikawa, “Preservation of muscles attached to the C2 and C7 spinous processes rather than subaxial deep extensors reduces adverse effects after cervical laminoplasty,” Spine, vol. 35, no. 16, pp. E782–E786, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. E. Newhouse, R. W. Lindsey, C. R. Clark, J. Lieponis, and M. J. Murphy, “Esophageal perforation following anterior cervical spine surgery,” Spine, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 1051–1053, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. K. N. Fountas, E. Z. Kapsalaki, L. G. Nikolakakos et al., “Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion associated complications,” Spine, vol. 32, no. 21, pp. 2310–2317, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. L. Netterville, M. J. Koriwchak, M. Winkle, M. S. Courey, and R. H. Ossoff, “Vocal fold paralysis following the anterior approach to the cervical spine,” Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 85–91, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. E. M. Baron, A. M. S. Soliman, L. Simpson, J. P. Gaughan, and W. F. Young, “Dysphagia, hoarseness, and unilateral true vocal fold motion impairment following anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion,” Annals of Otology, Rhinology and Laryngology, vol. 112, no. 11, pp. 921–926, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. R. Bazaz, M. J. Lee, and J. U. Yoo, “Incidence of dysphagia after anterior cervical spine surgery: a prospective study,” Spine, vol. 27, no. 22, pp. 2453–2458, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. M. J. Bolesta, G. R. Rechtine II, and A. M. Chrin, “Three- and four-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with plate fixation: a prospective study,” Spine, vol. 25, no. 16, pp. 2040–2044, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  41. A. R. Vaccaro and R. A. Balderston, “Anterior plate instrumentation for disorders of the subaxial cervical spine,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, no. 335, pp. 112–121, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. G. R. Zaveri and M. Ford, “Cervical spondylosis: the role of anterior instrumentation after decompression and fusion,” Journal of Spinal Disorders, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 10–16, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. W. M. Yue, W. Brodner, and T. R. Highland, “Long-term results after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion with allograft and plating: a 5- to 11-year radiologic and clinical follow-up study,” Spine, vol. 30, no. 19, pp. 2138–2144, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. M. G. Kaiser, R. W. Haid, B. R. Subach, B. Barnes, and G. E. Rodts, “Anterior cervical plating enhances arthrodesis after discectomy and fusion with cortical allograft,” Neurosurgery, vol. 50, no. 2, pp. 229–236, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. D. Samartzis, F. H. Shen, C. Lyon, M. Phillips, E. J. Goldberg, and H. S. An, “Does rigid instrumentation increase the fusion rate in one-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion?” Spine Journal, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 636–643, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. C. Wang, P. W. McDonough, K. K. Endow, and R. B. Delamarter, “Increased fusion rates with cervical plating for two-level anterior cervical pas and fusion,” Spine, vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 41–45, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  47. J. C. Wang, P. W. McDonough, L. E. A. Kanim, K. K. Endow, and R. B. Delamarter, “Increased fusion rates with cervical plating for three-level anterior cervical discectomy and fusion,” Spine, vol. 26, no. 6, pp. 643–646, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. W. C. Jacobs, P. G. Anderson, J. Limbeek, P. C. Willems, and P. Pavlov, “Single or double-level anterior interbody fusion techniques for cervical degenerative disc disease,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 4, Article ID CD004958, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. W. C. Jacobs, P. G. Anderson, J. Limbeek, P. C. Willems, and P. Pavlov, “Single or double-level anterior interbody fusion techniques for cervical degenerative disc disease,” Cochrane Atabase of Systematic Reviews, no. 4, Article ID CD004958, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. C. A. Brown and F. J. Eismont, “Complications in spinal fusion,” Orthopedic Clinics of North America, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 679–699, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. K. M. Malloy and A. S. Hilibrand, “Autograft versus allograft in degenerative cervical disease,” Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research, no. 394, pp. 27–38, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. R. C. Bishop, K. A. Moore, and M. N. Hadley, “Anterior cervical interbody fusion using autogeneic and allogeneic bone graft substrate: a prospective comparative analysis,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 206–210, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. T. C. Ryken, R. F. Heary, P. G. Matz et al., “Techniques for cervical interbody grafting,” Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 203–220, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. A. P. Nirala, M. Husain, and D. K. Vatsal, “A retrospective study of multiple interbody grafting and long segment strut grafting following multilevel anterior cervical decompression,” British Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 227–232, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. C. Cauthen, R. E. Kinard, J. B. Vogler et al., “Outcome analysis of noninstrumented anterior cervical discectomy and interbody fusion in 348 patients,” Spine, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 188–192, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. G. J. Martin Jr., R. W. Haid Jr., M. Macmillan, G. E. Rodts Jr., and R. Berkman, “Anterior cervical discectomy with freeze-dried fibula allograft: overview of 317 cases and literature review,” Spine, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 852–858, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  57. T. A. Zdeblick and T. B. Ducker, “The use of freeze-dried allograft bone for anterior cervical fusions,” Spine, vol. 16, no. 7, pp. 726–729, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. J. F. Fraser and R. Härtl, “Anterior approaches to fusion of the cervical spine: a metaanalysis of fusion rates,” Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 298–303, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. S. W. Hong, S. H. Lee, L. T. Khoo et al., “A comparison of fixed-hole and slotted-hole dynamic plates for anterior cervical discectomy and fusion,” Journal of Spinal Disorders and Techniques, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 22–26, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. S. M. R. Kabir, J. Alabi, K. Rezajooi, and A. T. H. Casey, “Anterior cervical corpectomy: review and comparison of results using titanium mesh cages and carbon fibre reinforced polymer cages,” British Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 542–546, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. J. C. Wang, R. A. Hart, S. E. Emery, and H. H. Bohlman, “Graft migration or displacement after multilevel cervical corpectomy and strut grafting,” Spine, vol. 28, no. 10, pp. 1016–1021, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  62. A. S. Hilibrand, M. A. Fye, S. E. Emery, M. A. Palumbo, and H. H. Bohlman, “Increased rate of arthrodesis with strut grafting after multilevel anterior cervical decompression,” Spine, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 146–151, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. K. Yonenobu, T. Fuji, and K. Ono, “Choice of surgical treatment for multisegmental cervical spondylotic myelopathy,” Spine, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 710–716, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  64. R. L. Saunders, P. M. Bernini, T. G. Shirreffs, and A. G. Reeves, “Central corpectomy for cervical spondylotic myelopathy: a consecutive series with long-term follow-up evaluation,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 74, no. 2, pp. 163–170, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. M. Ikenaga, J. Shikata, and C. Tanaka, “Long-term results over 10 years of anterior corpectomy and fusion for multilevel cervical myelopathy,” Spine, vol. 31, no. 14, pp. 1568–1574, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  66. N. E. Epstein, “The management of one-level anterior cervical corpectomy with fusion using atlantis hybrid plates: preliminary experience,” Journal of Spinal Disorders, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 324–328, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. M. D. Daubs, “Early failures following cervical corpectomy reconstruction with titanium mesh cages and anterior plating,” Spine, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1402–1406, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. M. C. Korinth, A. Kruger, M. F. Oertel, and J. M. Gilsbach, “Posterior foraminotomy or anterior discectomy with polymethyl methacrylate interbody stabilization for cervical soft disc disease: results in 292 patients with monoradiculopathy,” Spine, vol. 31, no. 11, pp. 1207–1214, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  69. T. A. Zdeblick, D. Zou, K. E. Warden, R. McCabe, D. Kunz, and R. Vanderby, “Cervical stability after foraminotomy. A biomechanical in vitro analysis,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery—Series A, vol. 74, no. 1, pp. 22–27, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. R. F. Heary, T. C. Ryken, P. G. Matz et al., “Cervical laminoforaminotomy for the treatment of cervical degenerative radiculopathy,” Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 198–202, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. G. R. V. Kumar, R. S. Maurice-Williams, and R. Bradford, “Cervical foraminotomy: an effective treatment for cervical spondylotic radiculopathy,” British Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 563–568, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. R. A. Davis, “A long-term outcome study of 170 surgically treated patients with compressive cervical radiculopathy,” Surgical Neurology, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 523–533, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. P. G. Matz, T. C. Ryken, M. W. Groff et al., “Techniques for anterior cervical decompression for radiculopathy,” Journal of Neurosurgery: Spine, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 183–197, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. A. Peolsson, L. Vavruch, and B. Öberg, “Can the results 6 months after anterior cervical decompression and fusion identify patients who will have remaining deficit at long-term?” Disability and Rehabilitation, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 117–124, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. D. Grob, J. V. Peyer, and J. Dvorak, “The use of plate fixation in anterior surgery of the degenerative cervical spine: a comparative prospective clinical study,” European Spine Journal, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 408–413, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. B. Zoëga, J. Kärrholm, and B. Lind, “One-level cervical spine fusion: a randomized study, with or without plate fixation, using radiostereometry in 27 patients,” Acta Orthopaedica Scandinavica, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 363–368, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  77. R. J. Mobbs, P. Rao, and N. K. Chandran, “Anterior cervical discectomy and fusion: analysis of surgical outcome with and without plating,” Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 639–642, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. D. Murrey, M. Janssen, R. Delamarter et al., “Results of the prospective, randomized, controlled multicenter Food and Drug Administration investigational device exemption study of the ProDisc-C total disc replacement versus anterior discectomy and fusion for the treatment of 1-level symptomatic cervical disc disease,” Spine Journal, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 275–286, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. A. Nabhan, F. Ahlhelm, K. Shariat et al., “The ProDisc-C prothesis: clinical and radiological experience 1 year after surgery,” Spine, vol. 32, no. 18, pp. 1935–1941, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  80. G. M. Y. Quan, J. M. Vital, S. Hansen, and V. Pointillart, “8 year clinical and radiological follow-up of the Bryan cervical disc arthroplasty,” Spine, vol. 36, no. 8, pp. 639–646, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. A. Suri, R. P. S. Chabbra, V. S. Mehta, S. Gaikwad, and R. M. Pandey, “Effect of intramedullary signal changes on the surgical outcome of patients with cervical spondylotic myelopathy,” Spine Journal, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 33–45, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. J. Tanaka, N. Seki, F. Tokimura, K. Doi, and S. Inoue, “Operative results of canal-expansive laminoplasty for cervical spondylotic myelopathy in elderly patients,” Spine, vol. 24, no. 22, pp. 2308–2312, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. T. T. Lee, G. R. Manzano, and B. A. Green, “Modified open-door cervical expansive laminoplasty for spondylotic myelopathy: operative technique, outcome, and predictors for gait improvement,” Journal of Neurosurgery, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 64–68, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. L. C. G. Persson, U. Moritz, L. Brandt, and C. A. Carlsson, “Cervical radiculopathy: pain, muscle weakness and sensory loss in patients with cervical radiculopathy treated with surgery, physiotherapy or cervical collar: a prospective, controlled study,” European Spine Journal, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 256–266, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. P. Sampath, M. Bendebba, J. D. Davis, and T. Ducker, “Outcome in patients with cervical radiculopathy prospective, multicenter study with independent clinical review,” Spine, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 591–597, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus