Table 4: Description of THA infection.

Infection categoryTypical onset after surgeryTypeSigns and symptomsRepresentative microorganism

Early postoperative≤2–4 weeksAcute (type I)Persistent pain after surgery, fever, redness, swelling after surgeryStaphylococcus aureus, coagulase-negative staphylococci
Late chronic≥1 monthChronic (type II)Insidious onset, persisting pain after surgeryCoagulase-negative staphylococci, Propionibacterium species, anaerobes, S. aureus
Hematogenous>2 years Acute (type III)Fever, pain, redness, swelling after a long period of wellnessStreptococci, S. aureus, gram-negative bacilli