Advances in Orthopedics / 2018 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Pathology and Treatment of Traumatic Cervical Spine Syndrome: Whiplash Injury

Table 1

Neurological symptoms after whiplash injury [1].

HeadachesMigraine-type headache
Tension-type headache
Cervicogenic-type headache
Temporomandibular joint derangement
Greater occipital neuralgia
Third occipital headache

Cognitive and psychological symptomsMemory, attention, or concentration impairment
Sleep disturbance
Psychiatric disorders: anxiety, depression, phobic travel, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder

DizzinessVestibular dysfunction
Cervical origin
Brainstem dysfunction

Visual symptomsBlurred vision
Reduced visual field
Disordered fusion
Reading and driving difficulties
Reduced accommodation

ParesthesiasTrigger points
Brachial plexopathy
Cervical radiculopathy
Spinal cord compression

WeaknessBrachial plexopathy
Cervical radiculopathy
Spinal cord compression

Rare symptomsTorticollis
Transient global amnesia
Hypoglossal nerve palsy
Superior laryngeal nerve paralysis
Cervical epidural hematoma
Brainstem infarct
Internal carotid and vertebral artery dissection
Symptomatic Chiari malformation

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