Advances in Orthopedics The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Epidemiology of C2 Fractures in the 21st Century: A National Registry Cohort Study of 6,370 Patients from 1997 to 2014 Tue, 17 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Objective. C2 fractures are a common injury in the elderly population. Treatment is often complicated due to osteoporosis and patient comorbidity. This study aims to investigate the incidence and treatment trend of C2 fractures in Sweden. Methods. Patients with the principal and secondary diagnosis of fracture of the second vertebrae (ICD-10: S12.1) between 1997 and 2014 were identified in the Swedish National Patient Registry (NPR). Results. Between 1997 and 2014, 6,370 patients with a C2 fracture (51% male; age: ) were identified in the NPR. The incidence of C2 fractures increased from 3 to 6 per 100,000 (; ), mainly due to an increase of incidence in the geriatric subgroup (≥70 years). The percentage of surgically treated patients decreased from 1997 to 2014 (; ). Younger age, male gender, spinal cord injury, and earlier year of admission were associated with surgical treatment assignment. Discussion. This study documents a rising incidence of C2 fractures in the elderly during the last two decades in Sweden. Greater awareness of fractures, improved diagnostics, coding, and a higher activity level of the patients are plausible causes. The declining trend of surgical treatment warrants further study. Anna-Lena Robinson, Claes Olerud, and Yohan Robinson Copyright © 2017 Anna-Lena Robinson et al. All rights reserved. The Results of Hemivertebra Resection by the Posterior Approach in Children with a Mean Follow-Up of Five Years Sun, 15 Oct 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Aim. To evaluate the radiologic and clinical results of patients who underwent deformity correction and stabilization for congenital spinal deformities using pedicle screws after hemivertebra resection. Material and Method. Nine patients, mean age 9.2, who underwent posterior hemivertebrectomy and transpedicular fixation for congenital spinal deformity and had longer than five years of follow-up were evaluated retrospectively. The hemivertebrae were located in the thoracic region in 4 patients and thoracolumbar transition region in 5 patients. The patients were evaluated radiologically and clinically in the postoperative period. Results. Mean length of follow-up was 64.2 months. The mean operating time was 292 minutes. The mean blood loss was 236 mL. The average hospitalization time was 7 days. The amount of correction on the coronal planes was measured as 31%. The mean segmental kyphosis angle was 45.7 degrees preoperatively and it was measured 2.7 degrees in the follow-up period. There were no statistically significant differences between the early postoperative period and final follow-up X-rays with respect to coronal and sagittal plane deformities. Conclusion. The ability to obtain a sufficient and balanced correction in the cases accompanied by long compensator curvatures that have a structural character in hemivertebra may require longer fusion levels. Ramazan Erden Erturer, Bekir Eray Kilinc, Bahadir Gokcen, Sinan Erdogan, Kursat Kara, and Cagatay Ozturk Copyright © 2017 Ramazan Erden Erturer et al. All rights reserved. Intraoperative Disinfection by Pulse Irrigation with Povidone-Iodine Solution in Spine Surgery Mon, 02 Oct 2017 07:00:32 +0000 Background. Deep wound infection in spine surgery is a debilitating complication for patients and increases costs. The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of wound pulse irrigation with a dilute povidone-iodine solution in the prevention of surgical site infection. Methods. 50 patients undergoing spinal surgery were randomly divided into two groups (A and B) of 25 patients each. In group A, wounds were irrigated with dilute (3%) povidone-iodine solution through a low-pressure pulsatile device. In group B, wounds were irrigated with saline solution through a bulb syringe. In both groups, specimens for bacterial culture were harvested from surgical site before and after irrigation. Results. In group A, no surgical site infection occurred; in group B, deep wound infection was observed in 3 patients. In both groups, before irrigation some cultures have been found positive for bacterial contamination. Conclusion. Our study seems to support the idea that low-pressure pulsating lavage of surgical wounds with povidone-iodine diluted to a nontoxic concentration of 3% is an effective therapeutic adjunct measure to prevent surgical site infection in spine surgery. However, the number of the enrolled patients is small and a significant statistical analysis is not practicable. This trial is registered with NCT03249363. Vincenzo De Luna, Federico Mancini, Fernando De Maio, Gabriele Bernardi, Ernesto Ippolito, and Roberto Caterini Copyright © 2017 Vincenzo De Luna et al. All rights reserved. Use of Common Inflammatory Markers in the Long-Term Screening of Total Hip Arthroprosthesis Infections: Our Experience Wed, 23 Aug 2017 07:46:03 +0000 Orthopedic implants have become essential components of modern medicine. The risk of infection of total hip arthroplasty (THA) is 1.5%−2%. Are the C-reactive protein (CRP), the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and procalcitonin (PCT) good markers for THA infection screenings? From February 2009 to December 2012 at our Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, 1248 patients were treated with THA. No prosthesis was cemented. All patients received antibiotic prophylaxis. All patients were discharged approximately 7.4 days after surgery with this clinical and radiographic follow-up program at 15 days and 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after surgery. Blood samples to determine ESR, CRP, and PCT values were taken at 1 hour before surgery and 15 days and 1, 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after surgery. During follow-ups there were 22 cases of THA infections; according the Widmer classification, infections are hematogenous ones in 16 cases, late chronic ones in 5 cases, and early postoperative ones in 1 case. In all cases the three markers were considered positive; in 6 cases there were no radiological signs of septic loosening. ESR, CRP, and PCT proved to have a greater diagnostic accuracy than X-rays in predicting late chronic and early postoperative infections. These markers are valuable support for the surgeon in monitoring the prosthetic implant lifespan. Gabriele Falzarano, Antonio Piscopo, Predrag Grubor, Giuseppe Rollo, Antonio Medici, Valerio Pipola, Michele Bisaccia, Auro Caraffa, Elizabeth Mary Barron, Francesco Nobile, Raffaele Cioffi, and Luigi Meccariello Copyright © 2017 Gabriele Falzarano et al. All rights reserved. Comparing Dorsal Tangential and Lateral Views of the Wrist for Detecting Dorsal Screw Penetration after Volar Plating of Distal Radius Fractures Mon, 31 Jul 2017 08:29:21 +0000 Background. The dorsal tangential (DT) view has been shown to improve the detection of dorsal screw perforation during volar distal radius fracture fixation. Here we performed a cadaveric imaging survey study to evaluate if the DT view was uniformly beneficial for all screws. Methods. Standardized placement of fixed-angle volar distal radius plates was performed on two cadavers. Fluoroscopic images depicting variable screw perforation of each of the four screw holes on the plate were generated. A 46-image survey was distributed at a large academic medical center. Respondents were asked to answer if the screw was perforating through the dorsal cortex in each image. Statistical analysis was performed using Fisher’s exact test. A value < .05 was considered significant. Results. The DT view offered a significantly more reliable determination of dorsal screw penetration than traditional lateral imaging for the radial-most screw at all degrees of perforation and the middle two screws at 2 mm of perforation. Residents and attendings had more accurate screw readings overall using the DT view. Conclusions. The DT view is superior to traditional lateral imaging in the detection of small amounts of dorsal perforation of the radial-most three screws of a fixed-angle volar plate. Juan M. Giugale, Mitchell S. Fourman, Deidre L. Bielicka, and John R. Fowler Copyright © 2017 Juan M. Giugale et al. All rights reserved. Cut-Off Value of Medial Meniscal Extrusion for Knee Pain Sun, 16 Apr 2017 08:32:22 +0000 Purpose. Medial meniscal extrusion (MME) has attracted attention as an index of knee pain in conjunction with clinical symptoms that could be more useful than the diagnosis of knee osteoarthritis on X-ray. However, the size of MME that would cause knee pain has not been clarified. The aim of the present study was to investigate the cut-off value of MME for knee pain. Methods. A total of 318 knees were evaluated. The presence of current or past knee pain was confirmed by interview. Next, MME was measured using vertical sonographic images of the medial joint spaces during weightbearing. Results. Overall, 71 knees were painful (P-group), and 247 knees were not (N-group). MME was 5.9 ± 1.8 mm in the P-group and 2.9 ± 1.5 mm in the N-group (). Analysis of the receiver operating characteristic curve showed that the cut-off value of MME for knee pain was 4.3 mm, with sensitivity of 0.8451 and specificity of 0.8502. In addition, 64% of knees without pain cases at the time of examination whose MME exceeded this cut-off value had past knee pain. Conclusions. The sensitivity and specificity of MME for knee pain were very high with a cut-off value of 4.3 mm. Hiroaki Kijima, Naohisa Miyakoshi, Yuji Kasukawa, Yoshinori Ishikawa, Hayato Kinoshita, Kentaro Ohuchi, Masazumi Suzuki, Nozomi Kaga, Chie Sato, Shuichi Chida, and Yoichi Shimada Copyright © 2017 Hiroaki Kijima et al. All rights reserved. Minimizing Stress Shielding and Cement Damage in Cemented Femoral Component of a Hip Prosthesis through Computational Design Optimization Tue, 28 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 The average life expectancy of many people undergoing total hip replacement (THR) exceeds twenty-five years and the demand for implants that increase the load-bearing capability of the bone without affecting the short- or long-term stability of the prosthesis is high. Mechanical failure owing to cement damage and stress shielding of the bone are the main factors affecting the long-term survival of cemented hip prostheses and implant design must realistically adjust to balance between these two conflicting effects. In the following analysis we introduce a novel methodology to achieve this objective, the numerical technique combines automatic and realistic modeling of the implant and embedding medium, and finite element analysis to assess the levels of stress shielding and cement damage and, finally, global optimization, using orthogonal arrays and probabilistic restarts, were used. Applications to implants, fabricated using a homogeneous material and a functionally graded material, were presented. Abdellah Ait Moussa, Justin Fischer, Rohan Yadav, and Morshed Khandaker Copyright © 2017 Abdellah Ait Moussa et al. All rights reserved. 3D Printing Aids Acetabular Reconstruction in Complex Revision Hip Arthroplasty Tue, 10 Jan 2017 12:02:35 +0000 Revision hip arthroplasty requires comprehensive appreciation of abnormal bony anatomy. Advances in radiology and manufacturing technology have made three-dimensional (3D) representation of osseous anatomy obtainable, which provide visual and tactile feedback. Such life-size 3D models were manufactured from computed tomography scans of three hip joints in two patients. The first patient had undergone multiple previous hip arthroplasties for bilateral hip infections, resulting in right-sided pelvic discontinuity and a severe left-sided posterosuperior acetabular deficiency. The second patient had a first-stage revision for infection and recurrent dislocations. Specific metal reduction protocols were used to reduce artefact. The images were imported into Materialise MIMICS 14.12®. The models were manufactured using selective laser sintering. Accurate templating was performed preoperatively. Acetabular cup, augment, buttress, and cage sizes were trialled using the models, before being adjusted, and resterilised, enhancing the preoperative decision-making process. Screw trajectory simulation was carried out, reducing the risk of neurovascular injury. With 3D printing technology, complex pelvic deformities were better evaluated and treated with improved precision. Life-size models allowed accurate surgical simulation, thus improving anatomical appreciation and preoperative planning. The accuracy and cost-effectiveness of the technique should prove invaluable as a tool to aid clinical practice. Andrew J. Hughes, Cathal DeBuitleir, Philip Soden, Brian O’Donnchadha, Anthony Tansey, Ali Abdulkarim, Colm McMahon, and Conor J. Hurson Copyright © 2017 Andrew J. Hughes et al. All rights reserved. Healing of the Acutely Injured Anterior Cruciate Ligament: Functional Treatment with the ACL-Jack, a Dynamic Posterior Drawer Brace Wed, 07 Dec 2016 10:46:14 +0000 Background. The injured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) has a limited healing capacity leading to persisting instability. Hypothesis/Purpose. To study if the application of a brace, producing a dynamic posterior drawer force, after acute ACL injury reduces initial instability. Study Design. Cohort study. Methods. Patients treated with the ACL-Jack brace were compared to controls treated with primary ACL reconstruction und controls treated nonsurgically with functional rehabilitation. Measurements included anterior laxity (Rolimeter), clinical scores (Lysholm, Tegner, and IKDC), and MRI evaluation. Patients were followed up to 24 months. Results. Patients treated with the ACL-Jack brace showed a significant improvement of anterior knee laxity comparable to patients treated with ACL reconstruction, whereas laxity persisted after nonsurgical functional rehabilitation. The failure risk (secondary reconstruction necessary) of the ACL-Jack group was however 21% (18 of 86) within 24 months. Clinical scores were similar in all treatment groups. Conclusion. Treatment of acute ACL tears with the ACL-Jack brace leads to improved anterior knee laxity compared to nonsurgical treatment with functional rehabilitation. Matthias Jacobi, Nikolaus Reischl, Karolin Rönn, Robert A. Magnusson, Emanuel Gautier, and Roland P. Jakob Copyright © 2016 Matthias Jacobi et al. All rights reserved. Orthopaedic Aspects of Marfan Syndrome: The Experience of a Referral Center for Diagnosis of Rare Diseases Mon, 05 Dec 2016 06:02:32 +0000 Marfan syndrome is caused by mutations in the fibrillin-1 gene (FBN1). The most important features affect the cardiovascular system, eyes, and skeleton. The aim of this study was to report the most frequent musculoskeletal alterations observed in 146 patients affected by Marfan syndrome. Fifty-four patients (37%) underwent cardiac surgery and 11 of them received emergent surgery for acute aortic dissection. Ectopia lentis was found in 68 patients (47%) whereas myopia above 3D occurred in 46 patients (32%). Musculoskeletal anomalies were observed in all patients with Marfan syndrome. In 88 patients (60.2%), the associated “wrist and thumb sign” was present; in 58 patients (39.7%), pectus carinatum deformity; in 44 patients (30.1%), pectus excavatum; in 49 patients (33.5%), severe flatfoot; in 31 patients (21.2%), hindfoot deformity; in 54 patients (36.9%), reduced US/LS ratio or increased arm span-height ratio; in 37 patients (25.3%), scoliosis or thoracolumbar kyphosis; in 22 patients (15%), reduced elbow extension (170° or less). Acetabular protrusion was ascertained on radiographs in 27 patients (18.4%). Orthopaedic aspects of the disease are very important for an early diagnosis; however, we have not observed definite correlations between the extent of orthopaedic involvement and aortic complications. Fernando De Maio, Alessandro Fichera, Vincenzo De Luna, Federico Mancini, and Roberto Caterini Copyright © 2016 Fernando De Maio et al. All rights reserved. Risk Factors for Postoperative Urinary Tract Infections in Patients Undergoing Total Joint Arthroplasty Mon, 28 Nov 2016 14:30:19 +0000 Background. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are the most common minor complication following total joint arthroplasty (TJA) with incidence as high as 3.26%. Bladder catheterization is routinely used during TJA and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) has recently identified hospital-acquired catheter associated UTI as a target for quality improvement. This investigation seeks to identify specific risk factors for UTI in TJA patients. Methods. We retrospectively studied patients undergoing TJA for osteoarthritis between 2006 and 2013 in the American College of Surgeon’s National Surgical Improvement Program Database (ACS-NSQIP). A univariate analysis screen followed by multivariate logistic regression identified specific patient demographics, comorbidities, preoperative laboratory values, and operative characteristics independently associated with postoperative UTI. Results. 1,239 (1.1%) of 115,630 TJA patients we identified experienced a postoperative UTI. The following characteristics are independently associated with postoperative UTI: female sex (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.6–2.7), chronic steroid use (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.2–3.2), ages 60–69 (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.0–2.1), 70–79 (OR 2.0, 95% CI 1.4–2.9), and ≥80 (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.5–3.6), ASA Classes 3–5 (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.2–1.9), preoperative creatinine >1.35 (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3–2.6), and operation time greater than 130 minutes (OR 1.8, 95% CI 1.3–2.4). Conclusions. In this large database query, postoperative UTI occurs in 1.1% of patients following TJA and several variables including female sex, age greater than 60, and chronic steroid use are independent risk factors for occurrence. Practitioners should be aware of populations at greater risk to support efforts to comply with CMS initiated quality improvement. Andrew P. Alvarez, Alysen L. Demzik, Hasham M. Alvi, Kevin D. Hardt, and David W. Manning Copyright © 2016 Andrew P. Alvarez et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Active Ankle Movement Frequency on Velocity of Lower Limb Venous Flow following Total Hip Arthroplasty Wed, 23 Nov 2016 12:16:09 +0000 Background. Although active ankle movement plays a predominant role in mechanical thromboprophylaxis following total hip arthroplasty (THA), the most effective frequency of movement remains unclear. Materials and Methods. In 29 consecutive patients undergoing THA, the velocity of blood flow in the profunda femoris was measured after various frequencies of ankle movement two days after THA using a pulse wave Doppler ultrasound system. To test the interobserver reliabilities for the velocity measured with Doppler ultrasound system, the intraclass correlation coefficient was calculated based on the measurement in 10 limbs of healthy volunteers. Results. At 0, 1, and 2 minutes after ankle movement, the velocity after movement at 60 contractions per minute was significantly faster than that after movement at 40 or 80 contractions per minute (, repeated-measures analysis of variance). The intraclass correlation coefficient score in two investigators was 0.849 (95% confidence interval, 0.428 to 0.962). Conclusions. Active ankle movement at 60 contractions per minute is recommended in patients receiving THA to obtain optimal venous blood flow. Tsutomu Nakayama, Sachiyuki Tsukada, Takayuki Hiyama, Tatsuya Yamada, and Naoyuki Hirasawa Copyright © 2016 Tsutomu Nakayama et al. All rights reserved. The Importance of Bone Mineral Density in Hip Arthroplasty: Results of a Survey Asking Orthopaedic Surgeons about Their Opinions and Attitudes Concerning Osteoporosis and Hip Arthroplasty Wed, 23 Nov 2016 06:08:00 +0000 Objective. In patients scheduled to undergo total joint arthroplasty of the hip, the bone quality around the joint affects the safety of prosthetic implantation. Bone strength is clinically assessed by measuring bone mineral density (BMD); therefore we asked if BMD is important to orthopaedic surgeons performing hip arthroplasty. Methods. In a 14-question survey, we asked about treatment patterns with respect to BMD, osteoporosis work-up, and treatment for patients with low BMD scheduled to undergo hip arthroplasty. Results. 72% of all asked orthopaedics reported to use cementless implants as a standard in hip arthroplasty. Over 60% reported that low BMD is a reason to reconsider operation strategies, but only 4% performed BMD measurement preoperatively. 26% would change their treatment strategy in case of a BMD (T-Score) between −1.5 and −2 and 40% in case of a T-score between −2 and −2.5, and 29% would change their intraoperative strategy if a T-score smaller than −2.5 was measured. Conclusion. The majority of orthopaedic surgeons who responded to the survey reported that they do not perform routine measurement of BMD before arthroplasty. However, most surgeons commented that low bone mineral density will influence their surgical plan and the implant design. Gerrit Steffen Maier, Kristina Kolbow, Djordje Lazovic, and Uwe Maus Copyright © 2016 Gerrit Steffen Maier et al. All rights reserved. Day of Surgery Admission in Total Joint Arthroplasty: Why Are Surgeries Cancelled? An Analysis of 3195 Planned Procedures and 114 Cancellations Wed, 16 Nov 2016 07:22:39 +0000 Background. Day of surgery admission (DOSA) is becoming standard practice as a means of reducing cost in total joint arthroplasty. Aims. The aim of our study was to audit the use of DOSA in a specialty hospital and identify reasons for cancellation. Methods. A retrospective study of patients presenting for hip or knee arthroplasty between 2008 and 2013 was performed. All patients were assessed at the preoperative assessment clinic (PAC). Results. Of 3195 patients deemed fit for surgery, 114 patients (3.5%) had their surgery cancelled. Ninety-two cancellations (80%) were due to the patient being deemed medically unsuitable for surgery by the anaesthetist. Cardiac disease was the most common reason for cancellation (), followed by pulmonary disease (). 77 patients (67.5%) had their operation rescheduled and successfully performed in our institution at a later date. Conclusion. DOSA is associated with a low rate of cancellations on the day of surgery. Patients with cardiorespiratory comorbidities are at greatest risk of cancellation. David M. Dalton, Enda G. Kelly, Terence P. Murphy, Gerry F. McCoy, and Aaron A. Glynn Copyright © 2016 David M. Dalton et al. All rights reserved. Digital Tip Amputations from the Perspective of the Nail Sun, 13 Nov 2016 09:00:25 +0000 The management strategy proposed herein for fingertip amputations advocates secondary healing with preservation of appearance as well as function. Conservative healing is more likely to result in a sensate, nontender, and cosmetically acceptable fingertip compared to surgical management in many clinical scenarios. This manuscript examines in detail the extent of fingertip injury and defines the relationship of injury to final fingertip outcome. A classification is presented, which allows adequate initial counseling regarding prognosis, and predicts the need for secondary corrective surgery. Lloyd Champagne, Joshua W. Hustedt, Robert Walker, John Wiebelhaus, and N. Ake Nystrom Copyright © 2016 Lloyd Champagne et al. All rights reserved. Reliability and Validity Measurement of Sagittal Lumbosacral Quiet Standing Posture with a Smartphone Application in a Mixed Population of 183 College Students and Personnel Sun, 23 Oct 2016 13:21:42 +0000 Accurate recording of spinal posture with simple and accessible measurement devices in clinical practice may lead to spinal loading optimization in occupations related to prolonged sitting and standing postures. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish the level of reliability of sagittal lumbosacral posture in quiet standing and the validity of the method in differentiating between male and female subjects, establishing in parallel a normative database. 183 participants (83 males and 100 females), with no current low back or pelvic pain, were assessed using the “iHandy Level” smartphone application. Intrarater reliability (3 same-day sequential measurements) was high for both the lumbar curve (: 0.96, SEM: 2.13°, and : 5.9°) and the sacral slope (: 0.97, SEM: 1.61°, and : 4.46°) sagittal alignment. Data analysis for each gender separately confirmed equally high reliability for both male and female participants. Correlation between lumbar curve and sacral slope was high (Pearson’s , ). Between-gender comparisons confirmed the validity of the method to differentiate between male and female lumbar curve and sacral slope angles, with females generally demonstrating greater lumbosacral values (). The “iHandy Level” application is a reliable and valid tool in the measurement of lumbosacral quiet standing spinal posture in the sagittal plane. George A. Koumantakis, Maria Nikoloudaki, Sara Thacheth, Kalliroi Zagli, Konstantina Bitrou, Andreas Nigritinos, and Leon Botton Copyright © 2016 George A. Koumantakis et al. All rights reserved. New Technique for Tibiotalar Arthrodesis Using a New Intramedullary Nail Device: A Cadaveric Study Thu, 13 Oct 2016 13:56:13 +0000 Introduction. Ankle arthrodesis is performed in a variety of methods. We propose a new technique for tibiotalar arthrodesis using a newly designed intramedullary nail. Methods. We proposed development of an intramedullary device for ankle arthrodesis which spared the subtalar joint using a sinus tarsi approach. Standard saw bones models and computer assisted modeling and stress analysis were used to develop different nail design geometries and determine the feasibility of insertion. After the final design was constructed, the device was tested on three cadaveric specimens. Results. Four basic nail geometries were developed. The optimal design was composed of two relatively straight segments, each with a different radius of curvature for their respective tibial and talar component. We successfully implemented this design into three cadaveric specimens. Conclusion. Our newly designed tibiotalar nail provides a new technique for isolated tibiotalar fusion. It utilizes the advantages of a tibiotalar calcaneal nail and spares the subtalar joint. This design serves as the foundation for future research to include compression options across the tibiotalar joint and eventual transition to clinical practice. Emmanuel D. Eisenstein, Mario Rodriguez, and Amr A. Abdelgawad Copyright © 2016 Emmanuel D. Eisenstein et al. All rights reserved. Arthroscopic Treatment for Primary Septic Arthritis of the Hip in Adults Wed, 05 Oct 2016 14:11:34 +0000 Purpose. Primary septic arthritis is a rare differential diagnosis of acute hip pain in adults. Inspired by the success of all-arthroscopic treatment in pediatric patients, we developed a diagnostic and surgical pathway for our adult patients. Methods. Seven patients, average age years with acute hip pain since days in the average, were included. Septic arthritis was confirmed by joint aspiration and dissemination was excluded by MRI and standard radiographs. Surgical treatment consisted of immediate arthroscopic lavage using 4 portals for debridement, high-volume irrigation, partial synovectomy, and drainage. Results. Patients were treated in hospital for days (range 7–16 days). WBC and CRP returned to physiological levels. During the mean follow-up of months (range 13–66 months) no patient showed recurrence of infection. The 5 patients with an unimpaired hip joint prior to the infection had a mean modified Harris Hip Score of points (range 91–100) at final follow-up. Conclusions. Arthroscopic therapy using a minimally invasive approach with low perioperative morbidity for the treatment of primary septic arthritis of the adult hip is able to restore normal hip function in acute cases without dissemination of the infection. Level of Evidence. IV. Jörg Hartmut Schröder, David Krüger, Carsten Perka, and Martin Hufeland Copyright © 2016 Jörg Hartmut Schröder et al. All rights reserved. The Prevalence of MRSA Nasal Carriage in Preoperative Pediatric Orthopaedic Patients Mon, 05 Sep 2016 06:57:48 +0000 Nasal carriage of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been described as a risk factor for postsurgical infection. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of MRSA in pediatric orthopaedic patients and whether being a MRSA carrier is a predictor of postoperative infection. Six hundred and ninety-nine consecutive pediatric patients who underwent MRSA nasal screening prior to surgery were studied. Postoperative cultures, total surgical site infections (SSIs), and epidemiological and surgical prophylaxis data were reviewed. Forty-four of 699 patients (6.29%) screened positive for MRSA. Nine of the 44 patients (20.5%) that screened positive for MRSA had a subsequent SSI compared to 10 of the 655 patients (1.52%) that screened negative (). All 9 patients with a SSI had myelomeningocele. The prevalence of MRSA was 6.30% and was predictive of postoperative infection. Children with myelomeningocele were at the highest risk for having a positive MRSA screening and developing SSI. J. J. Walrath, W. L. Hennrikus, C. Zalonis, A. M. Dyer, and J. E. Latorre Copyright © 2016 J. J. Walrath et al. All rights reserved. Arthroscopic Repair of Articular Surface Partial-Thickness Rotator Cuff Tears: Transtendon Technique versus Repair after Completion of the Tear—A Meta-Analysis Mon, 04 Jul 2016 09:47:42 +0000 Articular surface partial-thickness rotator cuff tears (PTRCTs) are commonly repaired using two different surgical techniques: transtendon repair or repair after completion of the tear. Although a number of studies have demonstrated excellent clinical outcomes, it is unclear which technique may provide superior clinical outcomes and tendon healing. The purpose was to evaluate and compare the clinical outcomes following arthroscopic repair of articular surface PTRCT using a transtendon technique or completion of the tear. A systematic review of the literature was performed following PRISMA guidelines and checklist. The objective outcome measures evaluated in this study were the Constant Score, American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons score, Visual Analogue Scale, physical examination, and complications. Three studies met our criteria. All were prospective randomized comparative studies with level II evidence and published from 2012 to 2013. A total of 182 shoulders (mean age 53.7 years; mean follow-up 40.5 months) were analyzed as part of this study. Both procedures provided excellent clinical outcomes with no significant difference in Constant Score and other measures between the procedures. Both procedures demonstrated improved clinical outcomes. However, there were no significant differences between each technique. Further studies are required to determine the long-term outcome of each technique. Yohei Ono, Jarret M. Woodmass, Aaron J. Bois, Richard S. Boorman, Gail M. Thornton, and Ian K. Y. Lo Copyright © 2016 Yohei Ono et al. All rights reserved. Minimally Invasive Medial Plating of Low-Energy Lisfranc Injuries: Preliminary Experience with Five Cases Tue, 31 May 2016 10:05:28 +0000 Fracture dislocations involving the Lisfranc joint are rare; they represent only 0.2% of all the fractures. There is no consensus about the surgical management of these lesions in the medical literature. However, both anatomical reduction and tarsometatarsal stabilization are essential for a good outcome. In this clinical study, five consecutive patients with a diagnosis of Lisfranc low-energy lesion were treated with a novel surgical technique characterized by minimal osteosynthesis performed through a minimally invasive approach. According to the radiological criteria established, the joint reduction was anatomical in four patients, almost anatomical in one patient (#4), and nonanatomical in none of the patients. At the final follow-up, the AOFAS score for the midfoot was 96 points (range, 95–100). The mean score according to the VAS (Visual Analog Scale) at the end of the follow-up period was 1.4 points over 10 (range, 0–3). The surgical technique described in this clinical study is characterized by the use of implants with the utilization of a novel approach to reduce joint and soft tissue damage. We performed a closed reduction and minimally invasive stabilization with a bridge plate and a screw after achieving a closed anatomical reduction. Jorge Javier del Vecchio, Mauricio Ghioldi, Nicolás Raimondi, and Manuel De Elias Copyright © 2016 Jorge Javier del Vecchio et al. All rights reserved. Reliable Alignment in Total Knee Arthroplasty by the Use of an iPod-Based Navigation System Mon, 30 May 2016 14:05:18 +0000 Axial alignment is one of the main objectives in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) is more accurate regarding limb alignment reconstruction compared to the conventional technique. The aim of this study was to analyse the precision of the innovative navigation system DASH® by Brainlab and to evaluate the reliability of intraoperatively acquired data. A retrospective analysis of 40 patients was performed, who underwent CAS TKA using the iPod-based navigation system DASH. Pre- and postoperative axial alignment were measured on standardized radiographs by two independent observers. These data were compared with the navigation data. Furthermore, interobserver reliability was measured. The duration of surgery was monitored. The mean difference between the preoperative mechanical axis by X-ray and the first intraoperatively measured limb axis by the navigation system was 2.4°. The postoperative X-rays showed a mean difference of 1.3° compared to the final navigation measurement. According to radiographic measurements, 88% of arthroplasties had a postoperative limb axis within ±3°. The mean additional time needed for navigation was 5 minutes. We could prove very good precision for the DASH system, which is comparable to established navigation devices with only negligible expenditure of time compared to conventional TKA. Paola Koenen, Marco M. Schneider, Matthias Fröhlich, Arne Driessen, Bertil Bouillon, and Holger Bäthis Copyright © 2016 Paola Koenen et al. All rights reserved. Comment on “A Systematic Literature Review of Three Modalities in Technologically Assisted TKA” Thu, 28 Apr 2016 06:41:12 +0000 Raju Vaishya, Nishint Gupta, Vipul Vijay, and Amit Kumar Agrawal Copyright © 2016 Raju Vaishya et al. All rights reserved. Early Functional Treatment and Modern Cast Making for Indications in Hand Surgery Sun, 17 Apr 2016 11:14:23 +0000 Cast treatment can serve both as a nonsurgical treatment option and as a means for providing postoperative protection. However, with the duration of immobilization intervals, the benefits of cast treatment, especially in hand surgery, are at risk of being outweighed by undesired drawbacks such as joint stiffening and contracture formation. In order to minimize potential complications commonly associated with cast treatment, efforts to further improve cast making must attempt to reconcile two conflicting objectives: (1) to achieve stability and rigidity at the site of injury (e.g., fracture retention) and (2) to allow free range of joint movement as early as possible. In addition, in order to assure patient compliance, modern cast treatments should aim to improve wearing-comfort of the cast. This paper describes modern cast designs for four common types hand injuries, with sample cases highlighting the clinical outcome of each treatment. S. Bohr and N. Pallua Copyright © 2016 S. Bohr and N. Pallua. All rights reserved. Effects of Zoledronate on Mortality and Morbidity after Surgical Treatment of Hip Fractures Tue, 22 Mar 2016 09:40:37 +0000 We aimed to evaluate the effects of intertrochanteric femoral fractures on mortality, morbidity, and cost of zoledronate treatment in elderly patients treated by osteosynthesis. Based on Evans classification, 114 patients with unstable intertrochanteric femoral fractures were treated with osteosynthesis. After the surgical treatment of intertrochanteric fractures, the treatment group (M/F, 24/32; mean age, 76.7 ± SD years) received zoledronate infusion, and the control group (M/F, 20/38; mean age, 80.2 ± SD years) received placebo. Postoperative control visits were performed at 6-week, 3-month, 6-month, and 12-month time points. Functional level of patients was evaluated by the modified Harris hip score and Merle d’Aubigné hip score. By 12 months, the mean HHS in treatment and control groups was 81.93 and 72.9, respectively. For time of death of the patients, mortality was found to be 57.1% (16/28) on the first 3 months and 92.9% (26/28) on the first six months. The mortality rate in the treatment and control groups was 14.3% (8/56) and 34.5% (20/58), respectively. The use of zoledronic acid after surgical treatment of intertrochanteric femoral fractures in osteoporotic elderly patients is a safe treatment modality which helps to reduce mortality, improves functional outcomes, and has less side effects with single dose use per year. Ömer Cengiz, Gökhan Polat, Gökhan Karademir, Oytun Derya Tunç, Mehmet Erdil, İbrahim Tuncay, and Cengiz Şen Copyright © 2016 Ömer Cengiz et al. All rights reserved. A Trend for Increased Risk of Revision Surgery due to Deep Infection following Fast-Track Hip Arthroplasty Mon, 29 Feb 2016 07:59:30 +0000 Rates of revision surgery due to deep infection following total hip arthroplasty (THA) increased at a Norwegian hospital following implementation of fast-track procedures. The purpose of this study was to determine whether selected demographic (age and sex) and clinical (body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, surgery duration, length of hospital stay, cemented versus uncemented prosthesis, and fast-track procedures) factors were associated with higher risk of revision surgery due to deep infection following THA. In a prospective designed study 4,406 patients undergoing primary THA between January 2001 and January 2013 where included. Rates of infection-related revision surgery within 3 months of THA were higher among males and among patients who received fast-track THA. Adjusting for sex and age, the implemented fast-track elements were significantly associated with increased risk of revision surgery. Risk of infection-related revision surgery was unrelated to body mass index, physical status, surgery duration, length of hospital stay, and prosthesis type. Because local infiltration analgesia, drain cessation, and early mobilization were introduced in combination, it could not be determined which component or combination of components imposed the increased risk. The findings in this small sample raise concern about fast-track THA but require replication in other samples. Einar Amlie, Anners Lerdal, Caryl L. Gay, Øystein Høvik, Lars Nordsletten, and Sigbjørn Dimmen Copyright © 2016 Einar Amlie et al. All rights reserved. Flexible Stabilisation of the Degenerative Lumbar Spine Using PEEK Rods Mon, 15 Feb 2016 12:24:02 +0000 Posterior lumbar interbody fusion using cages, titanium rods, and pedicle screws is considered today as the gold standard of surgical treatment of lumbar degenerative disease and has produced satisfying long-term fusion rates. However this rigid material could change the physiological distribution of load at the instrumental and adjacent segments, a main cause of implant failure and adjacent segment disease, responsible for a high rate of further surgery in the following years. More recently, semirigid instrumentation systems using rods made of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) have been introduced. This clinical study of 21 patients focuses on the clinical and radiological outcomes of patients with lumbar degenerative disease treated with Initial VEOS PEEK®-Optima system (Innov’Spine, France) composed of rods made from PEEK-OPTIMA® polymer (Invibio Biomaterial Solutions, UK) without arthrodesis. With an average follow-up of 2 years and half, the chances of reoperation were significantly reduced (4.8%), quality of life was improved (ODI = 16%), and the adjacent disc was preserved in more than 70% of cases. Based on these results, combined with the biomechanical and clinical data already published, PEEK rods systems can be considered as a safe and effective alternative solution to rigid ones. Jacques Benezech, Bruno Garlenq, and Gilles Larroque Copyright © 2016 Jacques Benezech et al. All rights reserved. Three-Dimensional Analysis of the Contact Pattern between the Cortical Bone and Femoral Prosthesis after Cementless Total Hip Arthroplasty Sun, 10 Jan 2016 07:50:33 +0000 The cementless stem Excia (B. Braun, Melsungen, Germany) implant has a rectangular cross-sectional shape with back-and-forth flanges and a plasma-sprayed, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate coating from the middle to proximal portion to increase initial fixation and early bone formation. Here, the conformity of the Excia stem to the femoral canal morphology was three-dimensionally assessed using computed tomography. Forty-three patients (45 hips) were examined after primary total hip arthroplasty with a mean follow-up of 27 ± 3 months (range: 24–36 months). Spot welds occurred at zone 2 in 16 hips and at zone 6 in 24 hips, with 83% (20/24 hips) of those occurring within 3 months after surgery. First- ( hips), second- (), and third- () degree stress shielding were observed. The stem was typically in contact with the cortical bone in the anterolateral mid-portion (100%) and posteromedial distal portions (85%). Stress shielding did not progress, even in cases where the stems were in contact with the distal portions. The anterior flange was in contact with the bone in all cases. The stability of the mid-lateral portion with the dicalcium phosphate dihydrate coating and the anterior flange may have inhibited the progression of stress shielding beyond the second degree. Hiroshi Wada, Hajime Mishima, Hisashi Sugaya, Tomofumi Nishino, and Masashi Yamazaki Copyright © 2016 Hiroshi Wada et al. All rights reserved. Computed Tomography Analysis of Postsurgery Femoral Component Rotation Based on a Force Sensing Device Method versus Hypothetical Rotational Alignment Based on Anatomical Landmark Methods: A Pilot Study Mon, 04 Jan 2016 13:08:23 +0000 Rotation of the femoral component is an important aspect of knee arthroplasty, due to its effects on postsurgery knee kinematics and associated functional outcomes. It is still debated which method for establishing rotational alignment is preferable in orthopedic surgery. We compared force sensing based femoral component rotation with traditional anatomic landmark methods to investigate which method is more accurate in terms of alignment to the true transepicondylar axis. Thirty-one patients underwent computer-navigated total knee arthroplasty for osteoarthritis with femoral rotation established via a force sensor. During surgery, three alternative hypothetical femoral rotational alignments were assessed, based on transepicondylar axis, anterior-posterior axis, or the utilization of a posterior condyles referencing jig. Postoperative computed tomography scans were obtained to investigate rotation characteristics. Significant differences in rotation characteristics were found between rotation according to DKB and other methods (). Soft tissue balancing resulted in smaller deviation from anatomical epicondylar axis than any other method. 77% of operated knees were within a range of ±3° of rotation. Only between 48% and 52% of knees would have been rotated appropriately using the other methods. The current results indicate that force sensors may be valuable for establishing correct femoral rotation. Stefan W. Kreuzer, Amir Pourmoghaddam, Kevin J. Leffers, Clint W. Johnson, and Marius Dettmer Copyright © 2016 Stefan W. Kreuzer et al. All rights reserved. Which Are the Most Relevant Questions in the Assessment of Outcome after Distal Radial Fractures? Thu, 31 Dec 2015 06:50:59 +0000 A study was designed to determine which wrist scoring system best correlates with patient satisfaction and which individual variables predict a satisfactory outcome. We looked at forty-five females and 5 males with wrist fractures at 12 weeks after injury and compared their level of satisfaction with various respected outcome measures. The mean age was 66 years. Multivariate regression analysis was carried out using a statistical software package. Patient satisfaction correlated best with the MacDermid, Watts, and DASH scores. The variables in these scoring systems that predicted satisfaction were pain and ability to perform household chores or usual occupation, open packets, and cut meat. The four most important questions to ask in the clinic following wrist fractures are about severity of pain and ability to open packets, cut meat, and perform household chores or usual occupation. This may provide simple and more concise means of assessing outcome after distal radial fractures. Level of evidence is level 4. Donald Buchanan, D. Prothero, and J. Field Copyright © 2015 Donald Buchanan et al. All rights reserved.