Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Optical Technologies
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 7610652, 5 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/7610652
Research Article

Microfluidic Optical Shutter Flexibly - Actuated via Electrowetting-on-Dielectrics with <20 ms Response Time

Integrated Optoelectronics and Microoptics Research Group, Physics Department, University of Kaiserslautern, P.O. Box 3049, 67653 Kaiserslautern, Germany

Correspondence should be addressed to Henning Fouckhardt

Received 26 September 2017; Revised 29 November 2017; Accepted 6 December 2017; Published 31 December 2017

Academic Editor: Mikhail Noginov

Copyright © 2017 Henning Fouckhardt et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. H. Zappe and C. Duppé, Tunable Micro-optics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2015.
  2. S. Hardt and F. Schoenfeld, Microfluidic Technologies for Miniaturized Analysis Systems, Springer, NY, USA, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  3. B. Berge and J. Peseux, “Variable focal lens controlled by an external voltage: an application of electrowetting,” The European Physical Journal E, vol. 3, no. 2, pp. 159–163, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. C. Gabay, B. Berge, G. Dovillaire, and S. Bucourt, “Dynamic study of a varioptic variable focal lens,” in Proceedings of the Current Developments in Lens Design and Optical Engineering III, vol. 4767, pp. 159–165, July 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Kuiper and B. H. W. Hendriks, “Variable-focus liquid lens for miniature cameras,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 85, no. 7, pp. 1128–1130, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. H. Ren, S. Xu, D. Ren, and S.-T. Wu, “Novel optical switch with a reconfigurable dielectric liquid droplet,” Optics Express, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 1985–1990, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. P. Mueller, A. Kloss, P. Liebetraut, W. Moench, and H. Zappe, “A fully integrated optofluidic attenuator,” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, vol. 21, no. 12, Article ID 125027, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. P. Muller, R. Feuerstein, and H. Zappe, “Integrated optofluidic iris,” Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 21, no. 5, Article ID 6202312, pp. 1156–1164, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. Li, C. Liu, and Q.-H. Wang, “Optical switch based on tunable aperture,” Optics Expresss, vol. 37, no. 16, pp. 3306–3308, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. L. Li, C. Liu, H. Ren, and Q.-H. Wang, “Adaptive liquid iris based on electrowetting,” Optics Expresss, vol. 38, no. 13, pp. 2336–2338, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. C.-C. Yu, J.-R. Ho, and J.-W. J. Cheng, “Tunable liquid iris actuated using electrowetting effect,” Optical Engineering, vol. 53, no. 5, Article ID 057106, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. B. Berge, “Électrocapillarité et mouillage de films isolants par l'eau,” Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, vol. 317, pp. 157–163, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  13. M. Vallet, M. Vallade, and B. Berge, “Limiting phenomena for the spreading of water on polymer films by electrowetting,” The European Physical Journal B, vol. 11, no. 4, pp. 583–591, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. H. J. J. Verheijen and M. W. J. Prins, “Reversible electrowetting and trapping of charge: model and experiments,” Langmuir, vol. 15, no. 20, pp. 6616–6620, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. J. Buehrle, S. Herminghaus, and F. Mugele, “Interface profiles near three-phase contact lines in electric fields,” Physical Review Letters, vol. 91, no. 8, pp. 861011–861014, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. B. Shapiro, H. Moon, R. Garell, and C. Kim, “Equilibrium behavior of sessile drops under surface tension, applied external fields, and material variations,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 93, pp. 5794–5811, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  17. K. H. Kang, “How electrostatic fields change contact angle in electrowetting,” Langmuir, vol. 18, no. 26, pp. 10318–10322, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. T. B. Jones, “On the relationship of dielectrophoresis and electrowetting,” Langmuir, vol. 18, no. 11, pp. 4437–4443, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. H. Moon, S. K. Cho, R. L. Garrell, and C.-J. Kim, “Low voltage electrowetting-on-dielectric,” Journal of Applied Physics, vol. 92, no. 7, pp. 4080–4087, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. F. Mugele and J.-C. Baret, “Electrowetting: from basics to applications,” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, vol. 17, no. 28, pp. R705–R774, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  21. T. B. Jones, “An electromechanical interpretation of electrowetting,” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1184–1187, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. G. Papathanasiou and A. G. Boudouvis, “Manifestation of the connection between dielectric breakdown strength and contact angle saturation in electrowetting,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 86, no. 16, Article ID 164102, pp. 1–3, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. Quéré, “Non-sticking drops,” Reports on Progress in Physics, vol. 68, no. 11, pp. 2495–2532, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. F. Mugele and J. Buehrle, “Equilibrium drop surface profiles in electric fields,” Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, vol. 19, no. 37, Article ID 375112, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  25. J. Berthier, P. Dubois, P. Clementz, P. Claustre, C. Peponnet, and Y. Fouillet, “Actuation potentials and capillary forces in electrowetting based microsystems,” Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 134, no. 2, pp. 471–479, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. F. Krogmann, W. Moench, and H. Zappe, “Electrowetting for tunable microoptics,” Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 1501–1512, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. N. Kumari, V. Bahadur, and S. V. Garimella, “Electrical actuation of electrically conducting and insulating droplets using ac and dc voltages,” Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, vol. 18, no. 10, Article ID 105015, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. K.-L. Wang and T. B. Jones, “Saturation effects in dynamic electrowetting,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 86, no. 5, Article ID 054104, pp. 1–3, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. G. Pollack, R. B. Fair, and A. D. Shenderov, “Electrowetting-based actuation of liquid droplets for microfluidic applications,” Applied Physics Letters, vol. 77, no. 11, pp. 1725-1726, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. G. Pollack, A. D. Shenderov, and R. B. Fair, “Electrowetting-based actuation of droplets for integrated microfluidics,” Lab on a Chip , vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 96–101, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. K. Cho, H. Moon, and C.-J. Kim, “Creating, transporting, cutting, and merging liquid droplets by electrowetting-based actuation for digital microfluidic circuits,” Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 70–80, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. N. Pei and M. C. Wu, “On-chip blade for accurate splitting of droplets in light-actuated digital microfluidics,” in Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Miniaturized Systems for Chemistry and Life Sciences (MicroTAS '12), 2012.
  33. S. Berry, J. Kedzierski, and B. Abedian, “Low voltage electrowetting using thin fluoroploymer films,” Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 303, no. 2, pp. 517–524, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. S. Berry, J. Kedzierski, and B. Abedian, “Irreversible electrowetting on thin fluoropolymer films,” Langmuir, vol. 23, no. 24, pp. 12429–12435, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. F. Auer, J. Harenburg, and C. Roth, “Funktionelle Schichten auf Metallen: Maßgeschneiderte Eigenschaften durch Sol-Gel-Technologie,” Materialwissenschaft und Werkstofftechnik, vol. 32, no. 10, pp. 767–773, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  36. B. Arkles, “Hydrophobicity, hydrophilicity and silanes,” Paint and Coatings Industry, vol. 22, no. 10, pp. 114–135, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. F. Wang, X. Wang, A. Xie et al., “A simple method for preparation of transparent hydrophobic silica-based coatings on different substrates,” Applied Physics A: Materials Science & Processing, vol. 106, no. 1, pp. 229–235, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S.-D. Wang and S.-S. Luo, “Fabrication of transparent superhydrophobic silica-based film on a glass substrate,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 258, no. 14, pp. 5443–5450, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. M. Maillard, J. Legrand, and B. Berge, “Two liquids wetting and low hysteresis electrowetting on dielectric applications,” Langmuir, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 6162–6167, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. P. C. H. Li, Microfluidic Lab-on-a-chip for chemical and biological analysis and discovery, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 2005.
  41. Y. Fouillet, D. Jary, C. Chabrol, P. Claustre, and C. Peponnet, “Digital microfluidic design and optimization of classic and new fluidic functions for lab on a chip systems,” Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 159–165, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. R. B. Fair, “Digital microfluidics: Is a true lab-on-a-chip possible?” Microfluidics and Nanofluidics, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 245–281, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. P. Day, A. Manz, and Y. Zhang, Microdroplet Technology: Principles and Emerging Applications in Biology and Chemistry, Springer, NY, USA, 2012.
  44. A. Banerjee, E. Kreit, Y. Liu, J. Heikenfeld, and I. Papautsky, “Reconfigurable virtual electrowetting channels,” Lab on a Chip , vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 758–764, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. A. Banerjee, J. H. Noh, Y. Liu, P. D. Rack, and I. Papautsky, “Programmable electrowetting with channels and droplets,” Micromachines, vol. 6, no. 2, pp. 172–185, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. Georgiadis, G. Maitland, J. P. M. Trusler, and A. Bismarck, “Interfacial tension measurements of the (H2O + n-decane + CO2) ternary system at elevated pressures and temperatures,” Journal of Chemical & Engineering Data, vol. 56, no. 12, pp. 4900–4908, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. Dhindsa, S. Kuiper, and J. Heikenfeld, “Reliable and low-voltage electrowetting on thin parylene films,” Thin Solid Films, vol. 519, no. 10, pp. 3346–3351, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. X.-P. Bi, N. L. Ward, B. P. Crum, and W. Li, “Plasma-treated switchable wettability of parylene-C surface,” in Proceedings of the 7th IEEE International Conference on Nano/Micro Engineered and Molecular Systems, (NEMS '12), pp. 222–225, Kyoto, Japan, March 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. X. Bi, B. P. Crum, and W. Li, “Super hydrophobic Parylene-C produced by consecutive O2 and SF6 plasma treatment,” Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 23, no. 3, Article ID 6626581, pp. 628–635, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. C. Heisel, Mikrofluidisches Tropfen-Array aktuiert mit Elektrobenetzung, University of Kaiserslautern Germany and Verlag Dr. Hut, Berlin, Germany, 2016.
  51. A. Tuennermann, S. Gebhardt, and H. Fouckhardt, “Plenoptic cameras,” in Tunable Micro-Optics, H. Zappe and C. Duppé, Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar