Table of Contents
Advances in Pharmaceutics
Volume 2014, Article ID 468456, 12 pages
Research Article

Nanoemulsion Based Hydrogel for Enhanced Transdermal Delivery of Ketoprofen

Rayat & Bahra Institute of Pharmacy, Sahauran, Mohali, Punjab 140104, India

Received 30 July 2014; Accepted 14 November 2014; Published 16 December 2014

Academic Editor: Cornelia M. Keck

Copyright © 2014 Ritika Arora et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The aim of the present study was to investigate the nanoemulgel as transdermal delivery system for poorly water soluble drug, ketoprofen, in order to overcome the troubles associated with its oral delivery. Different nanoemulsion components (oil, surfactant, and cosurfactant) were selected on the basis of solubility and emulsification ability. Pseudoternary phase diagrams were constructed using titration method to figure out the concentration range of components. Carbomer 940 was added as gel matrix to convert nanoemulsion into nanoemulgel. Drug loaded nanoemulsions and nanoemulgels were characterized for particle size, TEM, viscosity, conductivity, spreadability, rheological behavior, and permeation studies using Wistar rat skin and stability studies. Transdermal permeation of ketoprofen from nanoemulgels was determined by using Franz diffusion cell. Nanoemulgel containing 6% oleic acid as oil, 35% Tween 80, and Transcutol P as surfactant cosurfactant mixture, 56.5% water, 2.5% drug, and 0.6% carbomer was concluded as optimized formulation (NG6). The ex vivo permeation profile of optimized formulation was compared with nanoemulsion and marketed formulation (Fastum). Nanoemulgel showed significantly higher () cumulative amount of drug permeated and flux along with lower lag time and skin retention than marketed formulation. Thus, the study substantiated that nanoemulgel formulation can be used as a feasible alternative to conventional formulations of ketoprofen with advanced permeation characteristics for transdermal application.