(a) M(111)
(b) Pd(111)- 𝑎 (M)
(c) M(111)/Pd
Figure 8: Density of states projected on the d bands for three different systems: (a) atoms at the surface (111) for different metals M, (b) atoms at the surface of Pd(111), where the lattice constant 𝑎 0 of palladium has been artificially changed by that of different metals M; (c) atoms of the monolayer of Pd deposited on different metallic substrates M(111). The vertical lines indicate the position of the Fermi level.