Research Article  Open Access
Valentin Oleschuk, Gabriele Grandi, Padmanaban Sanjeevikumar, "Simulation of Processes in Dual ThreePhase System on the Base of Four Inverters with Synchronized Modulation", Advances in Power Electronics, vol. 2011, Article ID 581306, 9 pages, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1155/2011/581306
Simulation of Processes in Dual ThreePhase System on the Base of Four Inverters with Synchronized Modulation
Abstract
Novel method of spacevectorbased pulsewidth modulation (PWM) has been disseminated for synchronous control of four inverters feeding sixphase drive on the base of asymmetrical induction motor which has two sets of windings spatially shifted by 30 electrical degrees. Basic schemes of synchronized PWM, applied for control of four separate voltagesource inverters, allow both continuous phase voltages synchronization in the system and required power sharing between DC sources. Detailed MATLABbased simulations show a behavior of sixphase system with continuous and discontinuous versions of synchronized PWM.
1. Introduction
Multiphase and, in particular, sixphase induction motor drives are a subject of increasing interest in the last years due to some advantages compared with conventional threephase drives [1–5]. One of the most perspective applications of sixphase induction motor drives lies in the field of high power/high current systems (ship propulsion, locomotive, electrical vehicles, etc.), which are characterized by low switching frequency of power switches.
Recently, novel fourinverterbased topology of dual threephase drive system with an increased power rating has been proposed, allowing quadrupling the power capability of a single inverter with given voltage and current rating [6]. Figure 1 shows this system structure, consisting of two groups of two inverters, supplying the openend windings of asymmetrical dual threephase motor. The induction machine has in this case two sets of winding spatially shifted by 30 electrical degrees.
For electrical drives with increased power and/or current it is necessary to synchronize the output voltage waveforms of converters for elimination of undesirable subharmonics of voltage and current [7–9]. In order to avoid asynchronism of standard versions of spacevector modulation, novel method of synchronized spacevector PWM has been proposed and developed with application to different topologies of power electronic converters, electric drives, and renewable energy systems [10–17].
So, this paper presents results of detailed MATLABbased simulation of processes in asymmetrical sixphase drive system on the base of four cascaded voltagesource inverters controlled by algorithms of synchronized spacevector modulation.
2. Peculiarities of the Method of Synchronized SpaceVector PWM
In order to avoid asynchronism of conventional spacevector modulation, novel method of synchronized PWM [10, 11] can be used for control of each inverter in the sixphase (dual threephase) drive system.
Figures 2 and 3 present basic switching state sequences of standard threephase voltagesource inverter inside the interval 0°–90°. They illustrate schematically continuous (Figure 2) and discontinuous (Figure 3) versions of synchronized spacevector PWM.
The upper traces in Figures 2 and 3 are switching state sequences (in accordance with conventional designation [10]) and then control signals for the cathode switches of the phases , , of each inverter. The lower traces in Figures 2 and 3 show the corresponding quarter wave of the line output voltage of inverters. Signals represent total switchon durations during switching sub interval , and signals are generated on the borders (Figure 2) or in the centers (Figure 3) of the corresponding . Widths of notches represent duration of zero sequences (notches) [10, 11].
One of the basic ideas of the method of synchronized PWM is in continuous synchronization of the positions of all central signals in the centres of the 60°clock intervals, and then in symmetrical generation of all other active signals around the centres of the 60°clock intervals. In particular, special signals ( in Figure 2, in Figure 3) with the neighboring ( in Figure 2, in Figure 3) are formed in the clock points (0°, 60°, 120°) of the output curve of inverters with synchronized PWM for this purpose. They are reduced simultaneously until close to zero value at the boundary frequencies between control subzones. So, this novel PWM strategy provides continuous symmetrical output voltage control of inverters.
Table 1 presents generalized properties and basic control correlations for the proposed method of synchronized PWM [10]. It is also compared here with conventional asynchronous spacevector modulation.

3. Synchronized PWM in Dual ThreePhase System on the Base of Four Inverters
Control of four threephase inverters supplying asymmetrical sixphase induction motor has some specific peculiarities.
In particular, these inverters are grouped into two groups with two cascaded inverters in each group, and each inverter group is connected with the corresponding openend windings of dual threephase induction motor. Synchronous symmetrical control of the output voltage of each inverter of each inverter group in accordance with algorithms of synchronized PWM provides synchronous symmetrical regulation of voltage in the corresponding induction machine phase windings. Rational phase shifting between output voltage waveforms of the two inverters in each inverter group is equal in this case to one half of the switching interval (subcycle) [18].
In the case when the two DClink voltage sources have the same voltage, the resulting voltage space vectors are equal to the spacevector patterns of conventional threelevel inverter [3, 6, 18]. The phase voltage of the first group of cascaded inverters with two insulated DClink sources (Figure 1) is calculated in accordance with (1) [19]: where , , , , , and , , , , , are the corresponding pole voltages of each group of threephase inverters, and and are the corresponding zero sequence (triplen harmonic components) voltages.
At the same time, control of asymmetrical sixphase induction machines is based on the 30°phase shift of control and output signals of two abovementioned groups of four inverters [2, 5]. As an illustration of control of dual threephase system with synchronized PWM and with equal voltages of all DC sources (), Figures 4–7 present results of MATLABbased simulations, which include basic voltage waveforms (pole voltages , , , , linetoline voltages , , and the phase voltages and (with the spectrum of the voltage)) of two groups of inverters, controlled by algorithms of continuous (Figures 4 and 5) and discontinuous with the 30°nonswitching intervals (Figures 6 and 7) synchronized modulation. The fundamental and switching frequencies of each inverter are equal correspondingly to Hz and kHz, and modulation indices of all inverters are equal to in this case. The phase output voltage of the system has nine levels (like output voltage of threelevel neutralclamped converter) in this control mode. In particular, the presented voltage waveforms have symmetry, and its spectra do not contain even harmonics and subharmonics.
In the case of nonequal DC voltages, if and , but and , in order to provide equivalence of the output fundamental voltages (and also power balancing) of two inverters of each inverter group during scalar control of the system, it is necessary to provide linear correlations between its modulation indices and magnitudes of the DC voltages: In particular, for the case when , and , in accordance with (2) , and the last value of modulation indices corresponds to overmodulation control mode of the two corresponding inverters. To illustrate the abovementioned process in dual threephase drive system on the base of four inverters supplied by four isolated DC sources with different voltages (, , ), Figures 8–11 present results of simulation of this system. In particular, Figures 8 and 9 show basic voltage waveforms and spectra of the , and voltages for the system controlled by algorithms of continuous synchronized PWM. Figure 10 presents basic voltage waveforms during period of the fundamental frequency for the system with discontinuous synchronized PWM with the 30°nonswitching intervals, and Figure 11 shows spectra of the line and phase voltages of the first group of cascaded inverters. The fundamental and switching frequencies of each inverter are equal to Hz and kHz. It is necessary to mention that spectra of the corresponding output voltages of inverters of the second inverter group will have the same nature for the presented control mode.
(a)
(b)
(c)
(a)
(b)
(c)
For dual threephase drive system on the base of four inverters with nonequal voltages of DC links, in order to provide the rated power ratio and between four power sources of two groups of cascaded inverters (for scalar control mode), it is necessary to provide the corresponding correlations between magnitudes of DC voltages, modulation indices of four inverters, and the rated power ratio in accordance with (3) [14]:
For dual threephase drive system it is practically important to provide equal power distribution between two groups of inverters feeding asymmetrical sixphase induction motor:
For this case, in accordance with (3), for balancing operation of dual threephase system it is necessary to provide: where corresponding power of each inverter can be described as relative value of the total power of the system.
As an example of balanced operation of the system with four different levels of DC voltages, Figures 12 and 13 present basic voltage waveforms and spectra of the , and voltages for the dual threephase system with discontinuous synchronized PWM with the 30°nonswitching intervals. The fundamental and switching frequencies of each inverter are equal to Hz and kHz. Relative magnitudes of DC voltages are equal for this case, as parts of the maximum DCvoltage :
(a)
(b)
(c)
(d)
Modulation index of the fourth inverter, supplied by the maximum DCvoltage , is equal to . Taking in consideration equal power distribution between the corresponding sources (), in accordance with (5), modulation indices of the corresponding inverters are equal to So, in this case control modes of two inverters, of the first and the third, correspond to overmodulation control. The proposed algorithm provides equal magnitudes of the phase fundamental voltages and of dual threephase system (see Figure 13), and, correspondingly, equal power distribution between two sets of threephase windings of sixphase machine.
The motor phase voltages and of sixphase drives on the base of four inverters with both continuous and discontinuous synchronized PWM have symmetry during the whole control range and for any operating conditions (see Figures 4–13), and their spectra do not contain even harmonics and subharmonics, which is especially important for high power/current systems.
In order to compare characteristics of asymmetrical dual threephase (sixphase) systems on the base of two inverters ([2], standard topology of the system), and on the base of four inverters (novel topology of sixphase system [6], analyzed in the paper), Figure 14 presents calculation results of Weighted Total Harmonic Distortion factor (WTHD) versus modulation index m for the motor phase voltage (averaged values of ) for the sixphase drive with continuous (CPWM) and discontinuous (DPWM) schemes of synchronized modulation. In particular, DCvoltage magnitudes are equal in this case for all DC sources, so, modulation indices of all inverters are equal too. Control mode of the drive system corresponds here to standard scalar control, and average switching frequency of each inverter is equal to kHz.
The presented results show that integral spectral characteristics of the phase voltage of sixphase system on the base of four inverters are much better than of the system on the base of two inverters.
Figure 15 presents results of analysis of spectral composition of the phase voltage of dual threephase system on the base of four inverters with both continuous (CPWM) and discontinuous (DPWM) versions of synchronized PWM for the case of nonequal magnitudes of DC voltages. In particular, for this case and , but and . Two basic control modes have been analyzed:(1), , for this case;(2), , for this case.
The presented results show that a value of the WTHD factor of the phase voltage of sixphase system on the base of four inverters controlled by algorithms of discontinuous synchronized PWM is not strongly sensitive to relative magnitudes of DC voltages.
4. Conclusion
Spacevectorbased algorithms of synchronized PWM, applied for control of four voltagesource inverters feeding asymmetrical dual threephase (sixphase) induction motor with openend windings, allow continuous synchronization of the phase voltages in the system for any operating conditions. The presented results of MATLABbased simulations of the system show in details its behavior. In particular, algorithms of continuous and discontinuous synchronized PWM provide voltage synchronization for any ratios (integral or fractional) between the switching and fundamental frequencies, and for any ratios of voltage magnitudes of four DC sources.
The phase voltages of sixphase drives on the basis of four inverters with synchronized PWM have symmetry during the whole control range, including the zone of overmodulation, and their spectra do not contain even harmonics and subharmonics, which is especially important for high power/high current applications.
Simple linear correlations between modulation indices of four threephase inverters, magnitudes of DC voltages, and required power sharing between inverters provide requiring power balancing between DC sources and equivalence of the phase fundamental voltages of two groups of inverters.
Nomenclature
:  Fundamental frequency 
:  Maximum fundamental frequency 
:  Number of notches inside a half of the clock interval 
:  Coefficient of synchronization 
:  The first coefficient of overmodulation 
:  The second coefficient of overmodulation 
, , , :  Modulation indices of four inverters 
, , , :  Power of four DC sources 
, , :  DCsources voltages 
, , ,, , :  Pole voltages of the first and the second inverters 
, , ,, , :  Pole voltages of the third and fourth inverters 
, , :  Phase voltages of the first inverter group 
, , :  Phase voltages of the second inverter group 
, , ,:  Linetoline voltages of inverters 
:  Amplitude of the harmonic of voltage 
:  Zerosequence voltage 
:  Weighted total harmonic distortion factor 
:  Duration of the central active switching signal inside the clock interval 
:  Duration of others active switching signals 
:  Duration of the minor part of the active switching signals 
:  Duration of notches 
:  Duration of notches, generated at the clock points 
:  Duration of the signals, neighboring with the notches 
:  Width of sub cycle (switching interval). 
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Copyright
Copyright © 2011 Valentin Oleschuk et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.