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ElectroComponent Science and Technology
Volume 11, Issue 1, Pages 21-34

Electron Tunneling and Hopping Possibilites in RuO2 Thick Films

Department of Physics, University of South Florida Tampa, Florida 33620, USA

Received 26 March 1982; Accepted 26 May 1982

Copyright © 1983 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


It is proposed in this paper that the temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) in thick film resistors arises from (i) the usual particle-to-particle conduction, (ii) electron tunneling, and (iii) the phononassisted hopping. Equations for activation energies are derived for the temperature minimum of the resistance with and without hopping. New equations for TCR are suggested. Some extensive calculations of TCR and activation energy have been made for RuO2 thick film resistors, the results of which agree well with available experimental measurements.