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Active and Passive Electronic Components
Volume 2013, Article ID 762706, 11 pages
Research Article

Three Microwave Frequency Dividers Using Current Source/Sink and Modified Current Source Inverters

1Analog Mixed Signal Team, Freescale Semiconductor Pvt. Ltd., Noida 201301, India
2Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Vignan’s Foundation for Science, Technology and Research University, Vadlamudi, Guntur 522213, India

Received 12 June 2013; Accepted 20 November 2013

Academic Editor: Rezaul Hasan

Copyright © 2013 Gautham S. Harinarayan and Avireni Srinivasulu. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


In a preceding paper Carlos E. Saavedra, 2005, established that frequency division can be achieved with the use of inverter rings and transmission gates. In this paper, we suggest three modified circuits which obtain the similar function, namely, using Current Sink Inverter, Current Source Inverter, and Modified Current Source Inverter. The performances of the proposed circuits are examined using Cadence and the model parameters of a 45 nm CMOS process. The simulation results of the three circuits are presented and are compared. We also present the results of a simple but effective novel technique to reduce clock skew between real and complementary clock signals and the corresponding improvement achieved in maximum frequency of operation. One of the proposed circuits can operate at up to 8.2 GHz input while performing a divide-by-4 operation.