Active and Passive Electronic Components

Active and Passive Electronic Components / 2013 / Article

Research Article | Open Access

Volume 2013 |Article ID 971936 | https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/971936

K. L. Pushkar, D. R. Bhaskar, Dinesh Prasad, "Single-Resistance-Controlled Sinusoidal Oscillator Using Single VD-DIBA", Active and Passive Electronic Components, vol. 2013, Article ID 971936, 5 pages, 2013. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/971936

Single-Resistance-Controlled Sinusoidal Oscillator Using Single VD-DIBA

Academic Editor: Ali Umit Keskin
Received17 Jan 2013
Accepted27 Mar 2013
Published16 Apr 2013

Abstract

This paper presents a new single-resistance-controlled sinusoidal oscillator (SRCO). The proposed oscillator employs only one voltage differencing differential input buffered amplifier (VD-DIBA), two resistors, and two grounded capacitors. The proposed configuration offers the following advantageous features: (i) independent control of condition of oscillation and frequency of oscillation, (ii) low active and passive sensitivities, and (iii) a very good frequency stability. The validity of the proposed SRCO has been established by SPICE simulations using 0.35 μm MIETEC technology.

1. Introduction

Realisation of oscillators and active filters has become important research area in analog circuit design. Recently, various modern active building blocks have been introduced in [1], and VD-DIBA is one of them which is emerging as a very flexible and versatile building block for analog signal processing and has been used earlier for realizing a number of functions. Single-resistance-controlled sinusoidal oscillators (SRCOs) play an important role in control systems, signal processing, communication, and instrumentation and measurement systems [24]. SRCOs employing different active building blocks have attracted considerable attention of the researchers due to their several advantages over traditional op-amp-based SRCOs; see [515] and the references cited therein. The applications, advantages, and usefulness of VD-DIBA have now been recognised in the realisation of first-order all-pass filter, in simulation of inductors and in the realisation of sinusoidal oscillator [1618]. However, to the best of the knowledge and belief of the authors, none of the SRCOs using single VD-DIBA has yet been presented in the literature so far. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to present a new SRCO using a single VD-DIBA along with a bare minimum number of four passive components. The proposed configuration offers (i) independent control of condition of oscillation and frequency of oscillation, (ii) low active and passive sensitivities, and (iii) a very good frequency stability. The workability of the proposed SRCO has been established by SPICE simulations using 0.35 μm MIETEC technology.

2. New Oscillator Configuration

The schematic symbol and behavioral model of the VD-DIBA are shown in Figures 1(a) and 1(b), respectively. The model includes two controlled sources: the current source controlled by differential voltage , with the transconductance , and the voltage source controlled by differential voltage , with the unity voltage gain. The VD-DIBA can be described by the following set of equations: A routine circuit analysis of Figure 2 yields the following characteristic equation: Thus, the condition of oscillation (CO) and frequency of oscillation (FO) are given by Therefore, it is seen that FO is independently controllable by resistor and CO is controlled by .

3. Frequency Stability Analysis

Frequency stability may be considered to be an important figure of merit of an oscillator. The frequency stability factor is defined as , where is the normalized frequency, and represents the phase function of the open loop transfer function of the oscillator circuit, with ,  ,  , and ;   for the proposed SRCO is found to be Thus, for larger values of , the oscillator enjoys a very good frequency stability.

4. Nonideal Analysis and Sensitivity Performance

Let and denote the parasitic resistance and parasitic capacitance of the -terminal of the VD-DIBA. Taking the nonidealities into account, namely, the voltage of  -terminal , where    and    denote the voltage tracking errors of -terminal and -terminal of the VD-DIBA, respectively, then the expressions for CO and FO become The left-hand side of (3) with the component values shown in Section 4 turns out to be −0.812 which is in accordance with (3) (<0). On the other hand, when left-hand side of (6) is calculated using the components and parasitic values in Section 4, it turns out to be −0.7992. It is therefore seen that both values are quite close from these numerical examples; it can be inferred that by considering , and   , , (6) becomes which shows that (6) is almost the same as (3).

Its active and passive sensitivities can be found as In the ideal case, the various sensitivities of FO with respect to ,  ,  , and are found to be Considering the typical values of various parasitic, for example,  pF,  kΩ, and along with  nF,   kΩ, and  kΩ, the various sensitivities are found to be  ,  ,  ,  ,  , ,  , and    which are all low.

5. Simulation Results

To confirm theoretical analysis, the proposed SRCO was simulated using CMOS VD-DIBA (as shown in Figure 3). The passive elements were selected as  nF,  KΩ, and  KΩ. The transconductance of VD-DIBA was controlled by bias voltage . PSPICE-generated output waveforms indicating transient and steady state responses are shown in Figures 4(a) and 4(b), respectively. These results, thus, confirm the validity of the proposed configuration. Figure 5 shows the output spectrum, where the total harmonic distortion (THD) is found to be 2.77%. Figure 6 shows the variation of frequency with resistance . A comparison with other previously known SRCOs using different active building blocks has been given in Table 2.

The CMOS VD-DIBA is implemented using 0.35 μm MIETEC real transistor model which is listed in Box 1.

Aspect ratios of transistors used in Figure 3 are given in Table 1.


TransistorW/L (µm)

M1–M614/1
M7–M914/0.35
M10–M184/1
M19–M227/0.35


ReferenceActive component(s)Grounded
capacitors
Floating capacitorsResistorsCO and FO independently controllable

[5]1113Yes
[6]1113 Yes
[7]2203Yes
[8]1113Yes
[9]1204No
[10]1203Yes
[11]1203/2Yes
[12]11 (virtually grounded)13Yes (only in second topology of Table 1)
[13]11 (virtually grounded)13No
[14]1112Yes
[18]2201Yes
[15]1202Yes
Proposed1202Yes

6. Conclusions

A new application of a recently introduced VD-DIBA in the realisation of SRCO has been proposed. The proposed configuration employs a minimum possible number of passive elements (namely, two resistors and two grounded capacitors) and yet offers independent control of FO through the resistor and CO through the transconductance (hence, the circuit enjoys the electronic control of CO), low active and passive sensitivities, and a very good frequency stability. This paper thus added a new application circuit to the existing repertoire of VD-DIBA-based application circuits.

References

  1. D. Biolek, R. Senani, V. Biolkova, and Z. Kolka, “Active elements for analog signal processing: classification, review, and new proposals,” Radioengineering, vol. 17, no. 4, pp. 15–32, 2008. View at: Google Scholar
  2. R. Senani, “New types of sine wave oscillators,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 461–463, 1985. View at: Google Scholar
  3. R. Senani and D. R. Bhaskar, “Single op-amp sinusoidal oscillators suitable for generation of very low frequencies,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 777–779, 1991. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  4. D. R. Bhaskar and R. Senani, “New CFOA-based single-element-controlled sinusoidal oscillators,” IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, vol. 55, no. 6, pp. 2014–2021, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  5. V. K. Singh, R. K. Sharma, A. K. Singh, D. R. Bhaskar, and R. Senani, “Two new canonic single-CFOA oscillators with single resistor controls,” IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems II, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 860–864, 2005. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  6. S. Celma, P. A. Martinez, and A. Carlosena, “Minimal realisation for single resistor controlled sinusoidal oscillator using single CCII,” Electronics Letters, vol. 28, no. 5, pp. 443–444, 1992. View at: Google Scholar
  7. D. R. Bhaskar and R. Senani, “New current-conveyor-based single-resistance-controlled/voltage-controlled oscillator employing grounded capacitors,” Electronics Letters, vol. 29, no. 7, pp. 612–614, 1993. View at: Google Scholar
  8. C. T. Lee and H. Y. Wang, “Minimum realisation for FTFN-based SRCO,” Electronics Letters, vol. 37, no. 20, pp. 1207–1208, 2001. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  9. D. R. Bhaskar, “Grounded-capacitor SRCO using only one PFTFN,” Electronics Letters, vol. 38, no. 20, pp. 1156–1157, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  10. S. S. Gupta and R. Senani, “Grounded-capacitor current-mode SRCO: novel application of DVCCC,” Electronics Letters, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 195–196, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  11. V. Aggarwal, S. Kilinç, and U. Çam, “Minimum component SRCO and VFO using a single DVCCC,” Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 181–185, 2006. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  12. S. Özcan, A. Toker, C. Acar, H. Kuntman, and O. Çiçekoģlu, “Single resistance-controlled sinusoidal oscillators employing current differencing buffered amplifier,” Microelectronics Journal, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 169–174, 2000. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  13. U. Çam, “A novel single-resistance-controlled sinusoidal oscillator employing single operational transresistance amplifier,” Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 183–186, 2002. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  14. D. Prasad, D. R. Bhaskar, and A. K. Singh, “Realisation of single-resistance-controlled sinusoidal oscillator: a new application of the CDTA,” WSEAS Transactions on Electronics, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 257–259, 2008. View at: Google Scholar
  15. D. Biolek, A. U. Keskin, and V. Biolkova, “Grounded capacitor current mode single resistance-controlled oscillator using single modified current differencing transconductance amplifier,” IET Circuits, Devices and Systems, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 496–502, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  16. D. Biolek and V. Biolkova, “First-order voltage-mode all-pass filter employing one active element and one grounded capacitor,” Analog Integrated Circuits and Signal Processing, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 123–129, 2010. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  17. D. Prasad, D. R. Bhaskar, and K. L. Pushkar, “Realization of new electronically controllable grounded and floating simulated inductance circuits using voltage differencing differential input buffered amplifiers,” Active and Passive Electronic Components, vol. 2011, Article ID 101432, 8 pages, 2011. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar
  18. D. Prasad, D. R. Bhaskar, and K. L. Pushkar, “Electronically controllable sinusoidal oscillator employing CMOS VD-DIBAs,” ISRN Electronics, vol. 2013, Article ID 823630, 6 pages, 2013. View at: Publisher Site | Google Scholar

Copyright © 2013 K. L. Pushkar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


More related articles

 PDF Download Citation Citation
 Download other formatsMore
 Order printed copiesOrder
Views2097
Downloads1238
Citations

Related articles

Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions of 2020, as selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles.