Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Public Health
Volume 2014, Article ID 435780, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/435780
Research Article

Rural-Urban Differences in Health Care Expenditures: Empirical Data from US Households

1Center to Eliminate Health Disparities, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX, USA
2Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Rural Public Health, Texas A&M Health Science Center, College Station, TX, USA
3Department of Health Policy and Management, School of Rural Public Health, Texas A&M Health Science Center, College Station, TX, USA

Received 31 May 2014; Revised 26 August 2014; Accepted 27 August 2014; Published 9 September 2014

Academic Editor: Shenying Fang

Copyright © 2014 Wei-Chen Lee et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), “National health expenditures; aggregate and per capita amounts, annual percent change and percent distribution: selected calendar year 1960–2011,” 2012, http://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/NationalHealthExpendData/Downloads/tables.pdf.
  2. CMS, “National health expenditure projections 2011–2021,” 2012, http://www.cms.gov/Research-Statistics-Data-and-Systems/Statistics-Trends-and-Reports/NationalHealthExpendData/Downloads/Proj2011PDF.pdf.
  3. W. Hawk, “Expenditures of urban and rural households in 2011,” 2013, http://www.bls.gov/opub/btn/volume-2/expenditures-of-urban-and-rural-households-in-2011.htm.
  4. J. W. Cohen, A. C. Monheit, K. M. Beauregard et al., “The medical expenditure panel survey: a national health information resource,” Inquiry, vol. 33, no. 4, pp. 373–389, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. E. C. Ziller, A. F. Coburn, and A. E. Yousefian, “Out-of-pocket health spending and the rural underinsured,” Health Affairs, vol. 25, no. 6, pp. 1688–1699, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. R. J. Manski, H. S. Goodman, B. C. Reid, and M. D. Macek, “Dental insurance visits and expenditures among older adults,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 94, no. 5, pp. 759–764, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. F. M. Chevarley, P. L. Owens, M. W. Zodet, L. A. Simpson, M. C. McCormick, and D. Dougherty, “Health care for children and youth in the United States: annual report on patterns of coverage, utilization, quality, and expenditures by a county level of urban influence,” Ambulatory Pediatrics, vol. 6, no. 5, pp. 241–264, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. N. West and W. B. Weeks, “Health care expenditures for urban and rural veterans in veterans health administration care,” Health Services Research, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 1718–1734, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. K. D. Bertakis, R. Azari, L. J. Helms, E. J. Callahan, and J. A. Robbins, “Gender differences in the utilization of health care services,” Journal of Family Practice, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 147–152, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. P. Diehr, D. Yanez, A. Ash, M. Hornbrook, and D. Y. Lin, “Methods for analyzing health care utilization and costs,” Annual Review of Public Health, vol. 20, pp. 125–144, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. Pasic, J. Russo, and P. Roy-Byrne, “High utilizers of psychiatric emergency services,” Psychiatric Services, vol. 56, no. 6, pp. 678–684, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. von Korff, J. Ormel, W. Katon, and E. H. B. Lin, “Disability and depression among high utilizers of health care: a longitudinal analysis,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 91–100, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), MEPS-HC Panel Design and Data Collection Process, 2013, http://meps.ahrq.gov/mepsweb/survey_comp/hc_data_collection.jsp.
  14. Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 2010 National Healthcare Quality and Disparities Reports, 2011, http://www.ahrq.gov/research/findings/nhqrdr/nhqrdr10/datasources/cdc.html.
  15. AHRQ, MEPS HC-138: 2010 Full Year Consolidated Data File, Published 2012. Accessed April 26, 2013, http://meps.ahrq.gov/data_stats/download_data_files_detail.jsp?cboPufNumber=HC-138.
  16. CDC, “About the National Health Interview Survey,” 2013, http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nhis/about_nhis.htm.
  17. J. T. Spotila, “Standards for defining metropolitan and micropolitan areas: notice,” 2000, http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/fedreg/metroareas122700.pdf.
  18. Office of Rural Health Policy (ORHP), “Definition of Rural,” 2012, http://www.hrsa.gov/ruralhealth/policy/definition_of_rural.html.
  19. R. M. Andersen, “Revisiting the behavioral model and access to medical care: does it matter?” Journal of Health and Social Behavior, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 1–10, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. R. Andersen and J. F. Newman, “Societal and individual determinants of medical care utilization in the United States,” Milbank Memorial Fund Quarterly. Health & Society, vol. 51, no. 1, pp. 95–124, 1973. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. StataCorp, Stata Statistical Software: Release 12, StataCorp LP, Station, Tex, USA, 2011.
  22. R. A. Crosby, M. L. Wendel, R. C. Vanderpool, and B. R. Casey, Rural Populations and Health, John Wiley & Sons, San Francisco, Calif, USA, 2012.
  23. J. N. Laditka, S. B. Laditka, B. Olatosi, and K. T. Elder, “The health trade-off of rural residence for impaired older adults: longer life, more impairment,” Journal of Rural Health, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 124–132, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. T. D. McBride, “Why are health care expenditures increasing and is there a rural differential?” Rural Policy Brief, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 1–8, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  25. National Economic Council, “Prescription drug coverage & rural Medicare beneficiaries: a critical unmet need,” 2005, http://clinton4.nara.gov/media/pdf/rural_report_6-13.pdf.
  26. C. Caplan and N. Brangan, “Prescription drug spending and coverage among rural Medicare beneficiaries in 2003,” 2004, http://assets.aarp.org/rgcenter/post-import/dd106_rx_spending.pdf.
  27. UnitedHealth Group, “Modernizing rural health care: coverage, quality and innovation,” 2011, http://www.unitedhealthgroup.com/Error/PageNotFound.aspx.
  28. S. J. Franco, Medicare Home Health Care in Rural America. Policy Analysis Brief (No. 1), NORC Walsh Center for Rural Health Analysis, Bethesda, Md, USA, 2004.
  29. M. J. Hall, J. Marsteller, and M. Owings, “Factors influencing rural residents' utilization of urban hospitals,” National health statistics reports, vol. 18, no. 31, pp. 1–12, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. J. Hall, M. F. Owings, and J. A. Shinogle, “Inpatient care in rural hospitals at the beginning of the 21st century,” Journal of Rural Health, vol. 22, no. 4, pp. 331–338, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. Federal Trade Commission and the Department of Justice, “Improving health care: a dose of competition,” 2004, https://www.ftc.gov/reports/healthcare/040723healthcarerpt.pdf.