Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Public Health
Volume 2014, Article ID 898502, 27 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/898502
Review Article

The Challenges Confronting Public Hospitals in India, Their Origins, and Possible Solutions

Centre for Social Medicine and Community Health, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India

Received 11 January 2014; Revised 17 May 2014; Accepted 19 May 2014; Published 13 July 2014

Academic Editor: Gudlavalleti Venkata Murthy

Copyright © 2014 Vikas Bajpai. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. Government of India (GOI), Health Survey and Development Committee, vol. 2, Government of India Press, 1946.
  2. Government of India (GIO), Rural Health Statistics 2012, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi, India, 2013.
  3. “Health Nutrition and Population Statistics,” World Development Indicators, World Bank Data Bank, http://databank.worldbank.org/data/views/variableselection/selectvariables.aspx?source=health-nutrition-and-population-statistics.
  4. Government of India (GOI), District Level Household and Facility Survey 2007-08, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, 2010.
  5. S. Ghosh, “Catastrophic Payments and Impoverishment Due to Out-of-Pocket Health Spending: The Effects of Recent Health Sector Reforms in India,” Asia Health Policy Program Working Paper 15, 2010, Working paper series on health and demographic change in the Asia-Pacific, Stanford University Walter H. Shorenstein Asia-Pacific Research Center Asia Health Policy Program. View at Google Scholar
  6. Government of India (GOI), Morbidity, Healthcare and the Condition of the Aged, NSSO, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, 2006.
  7. (RHS), Rural Health Statistics in India 2011, Statistics Division, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi, India, 2011.
  8. R. Mehta, B. Gulshan, A. P. Singh, and M. Khejriwal, “A Peek into the Future of Healthcare: Trends for 2010, Technopak perspective: A quarterly report,” Quoted in ‘High Level Expert Group Report on Universal Health Coverage for India, Instituted by Planning Commission of India, 2010.
  9. American Medical Association (AMA), “International Medical Graduates in American Medicine: Contemporary challenges and opportunities,” A position paper by the AMA-IMG Section Governing Council, 2010, http://www.ama-assn.org/resources/doc/img/international-medical-graduates-in-american-medicine.pdf.
  10. Center for Enquiry into Health and Allied Topics (CEHAT), “Changing Health Budgets,” Centre for Enquiry into Health and Allied Themes, Research Centre of Anusandhan Trust, 2006.
  11. CBHI, “Table 1. 1. 3, National Health Profile, 2005,” Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, India, CBHI (Central Bureau of Health Intelligence), 2005, http://cbhidghs.nic.in/CBHI%20Book/chapter1.pdf.
  12. GOI, Table 6. 2. 2 State/UT Wise Number of Govt. Hospitals and Beds in Rural and Urban Areas (including CHCs) in India (Provisional), in “Health infrastructure” in ‘National Health Profile, 2011’, Central Bureau of Health Intelligence, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, 2011.
  13. “National Health Accounts 2004-05 (With Provisional Estimates from 2005-06 to 2008-09),” GOI 2004-05, National Health Accounts Cell, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi, India.
  14. T. Dunning, “Structural Reform and Medical Commerce: The Political Economy of Cuban Health Care in the Special Period,” Department of Political Science, University of California, Berkeley, Paper was prepared for delivery at the 2001 meeting of the Latin American Studies Association, Washington, DC, USA, 2001, http://lasa.international.pitt.edu/Lasa2001/DunningThad.pdf.
  15. RBI: Reserve Bank of India, Handbook of Statistics on Indian Economy, 2013, http://rbidocs.rbi.org.in/rdocs/Publications/PDFs/FHB160913FLS.pdf.
  16. D. Nandan, K. S. Nair, and U. Datta, “Human resources for public health in India: issues and challenges,” Health and Population: Perspectives and Issues, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 230–242, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. M. Rao, K. D. Rao, A. S. Kumar, M. Chatterjee, and T. Sundararaman, “Human resources for health in India,” The Lancet, vol. 377, no. 9765, pp. 587–598, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. High Level Expert Group (HLEG), “Human resources for health,” in High Level Expert Group Report on Universal Health Coverage for India, Planning Commission, Government of India, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  19. K. Rao, A. Bhatnagar, and P. Berman, “India’s health workforce: size, composition and distribution,” in World Bank/Public Health Foundation of India, J. La Forgia and K. Rao, Eds., India Health Beat, New Delhi, India, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  20. World Health Organization (WHO), Global Atlas of the Health, Workforce, Geneva, Switzerland, 2010.
  21. M. D. John, S. J. Chander, and N. Devadasan, “National Urban Health Mission: An analysis of strategies and mechanisms for improving services for urban poor,” Background paper for National Workshop on Urban Health and Poverty, 2-3 July 2008, New Delhi, organized by Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation, Government of India, 2008, http://www.academia.edu/855928/National_Urban_Health_Mission_An_analysis_of_strategies_and_mechanisms_for_improving_services_for_urban_poor.
  22. K. Muralidharan, N. Chaudhury, and J. Hammer, “Is There a Doctor in the House? Medical Worker Absence in India,” Working paper, Department of Economics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Harvard University, 2011, http://scholar.harvard.edu/files/kremer/files/is_there_a_doctor_in_the_house_-_12_april_2011.pdf.
  23. American Medical Association, “International medical graduates in American medicine: Contemporary challenges and opportunities,” A position paper by the AMA-IMG Section Governing Council, AMA Press, Chicago, Ill, USA, 2012, http://nycsprep.com/pdf/international-medical-graduates.pdf.
  24. N. Bhola, R. Kumari, and T. Nidha, “Utilization of the health care delivery system in a district of North India,” East African Journal of Public Health, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 147–153, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. Government of Uttrakhand, “Department of Information and Public Relations,” Press Note, 2011, http://www.cm.uk.gov.in/upload/pressrelease/Pressrelease-280.pdf.
  26. N. Chandra, “Delhi hospital pays high price for excellence,” India today, 2012, http://indiatoday.intoday.in/story/delhi-hospital-pays-high-price-for-excellence/1/200025.html.
  27. Jan Swasthya Abhiyan, Globalization and Health, 2006.
  28. D. N. Jha, “All India Institute of Medical Sciences faces exodus of top doctors,” Times of India, 2012, http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-05-03/delhi/31555155_1_faculty-association-voluntary-retirement-faculty-members.
  29. B. S. Perappadan, “Private hospitals advertise at AIIMS to recruit doctors,” The Hindu, 2012, http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/private-hospitals-advertise-at-aiims-to-recruit-doctors/article3389387.ece.
  30. India, National Health Accounts 2004-05 (with Provisional Estimates from 2005-06 to 2008-09), Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, New Delhi, India, 2004-05.
  31. T. B. MacCulay, “Minute on Indian Education,” The British Parliament, 1835, http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00generallinks/macaulay/txt_minute_education_1835.html.
  32. S. Manmohan, “Of Oxford, economics, empire, and freedom,” The Hindu, 2005, http://www.hindu.com/2005/07/10/stories/2005071002301000.htm.
  33. D. K. Das and A. Verma, “The armed police in the British colonial tradition: the Indian perspective,” Policing, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 354–367, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. Asian Centre for Human Rights, Torture in India, 2011, Asian Centre for Human Rights, 2011.
  35. R. Blackely, “Ghulam Nabi Azad says late night TV will help slow India’s birth rate,” The Sunday Times, 2009.
  36. V. W. Sidel and R. Sidel, Serve the People: Observations on Medicine in the People’s Republic of China, Becon Press, Boston, Mass, USA, 1973.
  37. R. Sidel and V. W. Sidel, The Health of China, Zed Press, London, UK, 1982.
  38. Sokhey Committee, Sub-Committee on National Health, National Planning Committee, Vora and Co Publishers, Bombay, India, 1948.
  39. Mudaliar Committee, Health Survey and Development Committee, Government of India, New Delhi, India, 1959.
  40. D. Banerji, Health and Family Planning Services in India: An Epidemiological, Sociocultural and Political Analysis and a Perspective, Lok Paksh, New Delhi, India, 1985.
  41. D. Banerji, “Evolution of health services in India,” in In Search of Diagnosis: Analysis of Present System of Health Care, A. J. Patel, Ed., 1977, Published by Voluntary Health Association of India for Medico Friend Circle. View at Google Scholar
  42. D. Banerji, “Objectives of medical education,” in In Search of Diagnosis: Analysis of Present System of Health Care, A. J. Patel, Ed., Medico Friend Circle, New Delhi, India, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  43. M. Kaushik, A. Jaiswal, N. Shah, and A. Mahal, “High-end physician migration from India,” Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 86, no. 1, pp. 40–45, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. K. Yadav, P. Jarhyan, V. Gupta, and C. Pandav, “Revitalizing rural health care delivery: can rural health practitioners be the answer?” Indian Journal of Community Medicine, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 3–5, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. C. Sathyamala, O. Mittal, R. Dasgupta, and R. Priya, “Polio eradication initiative in India: deconstructing the GPEI,” International Journal of Health Services, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 361–383, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. Jan Swasthya Abhiyan, New Technologies in Public Health: Who Pays and Who Benefits?1st edition, 2007.
  47. R. Dasgupta and I. Ghanashyam, “Connecting the DOTS: spectre of a public health iatrogenesis?” Indian Journal of Community Medicine, vol. 37, no. 1, pp. 13–15, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. K. Maurya, A. K. Singh, M. Kumar et al., “Changing patterns and trends of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis at referral centre in Northern India: a 4-year experience,” Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 40–46, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  49. E. Hong, Globalisation and the Impact on Health: A Third World View, The Peoples’ Health Assembly, Savar, Bangladesh, 2000.
  50. M. Gandy, “Deadly alliances: death, disease, and the global politics of public health,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. e4.9–e4.11, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. R. Baru, A. Acharya, S. Acharya, A. K. Shiva Kumar, and K. Nagaraj, “Inequities in access to health services in India: caste, class and region,” Economic and Political Weekly, vol. 45, no. 38, pp. 49–58, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. R. Duggal, “Health Care and New Economic Policies, the Further Consolidation of the Private Sector in India,” Paper Presented at the National Seminar on the Rights to Development, University of Mumbai, Mumbai, India, 1998.
  53. Jan Swasthya Abhiyan, “Health System in India: Crisis and Alternatives,” Towards the National Health Assembly II, Booklet 2, 2006.
  54. S. Bhide and R. Shand, “Inequalities in income growth in india before and after reforms,” South Asia Economic Journal, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 19–51, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  55. A. Marriot, “Blind Optimism Challenging the myths about private health care in poor countries,” Oxfam Briefing Paper 125, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  56. L. V. Gangolli, R. Duggal, and A. Shukla, Review of Healthcare in india, Centre for Enquiry into Health and Allied Themes, Research Centre of Anusandhan Trust, 2005.
  57. Arti Dhar, “Activists up in arms against new proposal on health care,” The Hindu, 2012.
  58. V. Bajpai and A. Saraya, “User charges as a feature of health policy in India: a perspective,” National Medical Journal of India, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 163–170, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. L. M. Franco, S. Bennett, and R. Kanfer, “Health sector reform and public sector health worker motivation: a conceptual framework,” Social Science and Medicine, vol. 54, no. 8, pp. 1255–1266, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. Chaudhary, “Public spending on health in low-income states and central transfers,” Financing Human Development, Policy Brief 1, National Institute of Public Finance and Policy, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  61. WHO, Primary Health Care: Report of the International Conference on Primary Health Care, Alma-Ata, USSR, Geneva, Switzerland, 1978.
  62. J. Y. Kim, “World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim’s Speech at World Health Assembly: Poverty, Health and the Human Future,” The World Bank, 2013, http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/speech/2013/05/21/world-bank-group-president-jim-yong-kim-speech-at-world-health-assembly.
  63. K. Srinath Reddy, “Universal Health Coverage in India: the time has come,” National Medical Journal of India, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 65–67, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. Arti Dhar, “Panel on health coverage addresses World Bank concerns,” The Hindu, 2011.
  65. S. Makkar, “Universal healthcare plan may be nixed,” The Wall Street Journal, 2012, http://www.livemint.com/.
  66. E. R. B. Cruz and R. S. S. Perea, “National training program for comprehensive community physicians, Venezuela,” MEDICC Review, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 35–42, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  67. Express News Service, “New MP varsity to teach medicine, engg in Hindi,” The Indian Express, 2013, http://www.indianexpress.com/news/new-mp-varsity-to-teach-medicine-engg-in-hindi/1126170/.