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Advances in Public Health
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 7479295, 10 pages
Review Article

Childhood Mortality: Trends and Determinants in Ethiopia from 1990 to 2015—A Systematic Review

1College of Health Sciences and Medicine, Wolaita Sodo University, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia
2Department of Reproductive Health, Institute of Public Health, University of Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia

Correspondence should be addressed to Yohannes Mehretie Adinew

Received 11 February 2017; Revised 13 April 2017; Accepted 28 May 2017; Published 16 July 2017

Academic Editor: Jennifer L. Freeman

Copyright © 2017 Yohannes Mehretie Adinew et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Millennium Development Goal 4 calls for reducing under-five mortality rate by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. The aim of this review was to assess trend of childhood mortality and its determinants from 1990 to 2015 in Ethiopia. Methods. A systematic literature search was conducted in the databases of PubMed and Ovid Medline, Cochrane Library, national medical journals, government websites, and Google Scholar. Original observational study designs and reports conducted entirely or in part in Ethiopia that included a primary outcome variable of childhood mortality and published between 1990 and 2015 were included. Ascertained relevant articles were appraised and the findings were integrated into a systematic review. Results. Childhood mortality has declined in Ethiopia with more pronounced reduction over the last 10 years. Under-five mortality is 72% lower now than it was 25 years ago, with the pace of decline in infant mortality (83%) somewhat faster than child mortality (76%). The corresponding decline in neonatal and postneonatal mortality over the same period was 64% and 68%, respectively. Parental sociodemographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral variables and nutritional, environmental, and sanitary factors have been identified to affect child survival. Conclusion. Ethiopia has successfully achieved the Millennium Development Goal 4 to reduce under-five mortality.