Table 1: Study design and participant details of reviewed studies ().
(a)

ReferenceStudy designStudy conditionsAge group (range or mean ± SD)Health conditionEX intervention

Aiello et al. (2016)Meta-analysis180EX versus controlAdults (32–54)OSAAE
RT

Alley et al. (2015)Single group24EX versus controlYA (18–25)HealthyRT

Ashrafinia et al. (2014)Open trial80EX versus controlYA, adults (18–35)PostpartumPilates

Baron et al. (2013)Single group11EX versus controlOA (≥55)InsomniaAE

Brand et al. (2014)Observational52Moderate versus vigorous EXYA (19.70 ± 0.30)AthletesVarious sports

Chen et al. (2017)Observational12728Different levels of physical activity and smokingYA, adults, OA (18–≥65)Healthy, smokersVarious

Dishman et al. (2015)Observational8523Different levels of cardiorespiratory fitnessYA, adults, OA (20–85)HealthyAE ()

Du et al. (2015)Meta-analysis460EX versus controlOA (65–75)HealthyTai chi
SC

Durcan et al. (2014)RCT78EX versus controlAdults, OA (59 ± 12)RAAE
RT

Dzierzewski et al. (2014)Single group79EX versus controlAdults, OA (63.58 ± 8.66)Healthy

Erlacher et al. (2015)Open trial98EX versus controlYA, adults, OA (22–77)SCAE

Fairbrother et al. (2014)Single group20EX during different times of dayAdults (30–60)PrehypertensionAE

Gambassi et al. (2015)Open trial16EX versus controlOA (65 ± 3)HealthyRT

Harp (2015)Single group2027Pre- versus post-EXYA (21.8 ± 5.0)HealthyAE

Harris et al. (2017)Observational74Athletes versus controlsAdolescents (16.7 ± 0.72)Healthy, athletesVarious

Iftikhar et al. (2014)Meta-analysis129EX versus controlAdults (49.1 ± 8.5)OSAAE, RT

Killer et al. (2015)Single group13Pre- and post-EXYA (25 ± 6)Athletes

Kredlow et al. (2015)Meta-analysis2863Acute EX versus controlYA, adults, OA (18.3–88.5)Healthy, athletes, SCAE, RT
Chronic EX versus controlYA, adults, OA (18.3–88.5)Healthy, SCAE, Tai chi, Yoga

Lang et al. (2016)Meta-analysis16549High versus low EX versus controlAdolescents, YA (14–24)Healthy, athletes

Løppenthin et al. (2014)RCT44EX versus controlYA, adults, OA (18–70)RAAE

Melancon et al. (2015)Single group13EX versus controlAdults, OA (57–70)HealthyAE

Mendelson et al. (2016)Open trial40EX versus controlAdolescents (14.5 ± 1.5)Obese, healthyAE, RT

Nam et al. (2016)Open trial77Diet + EX versus diet aloneAdults, OA (35–65)Type 2 diabetes

Rethorst et al. (2015)Open trial126High versus low EXYA, adults, OA (18–70)Major depressionAE

Siddarth et al. (2014)Observational42Mind-body EX versus AEAdults, OA (64.6 ± 13.6)HealthyYoga, Tai chi, AE

Strand et al. (2013)Observational3489Different levels of cardiorespiratory fitnessAdults, OA (51.9 ± 12.4)HealthyAE ()

Suppiah et al. (2015)Observational11Low- versus high-intensity EX versus controlAdolescents (14.8 ± 0.9)AthletesBowling (low intensity), badminton (high intensity)

Suppiah et al. (2016)Observational29Low- versus high-intensity EX versus controlAdolescents (14.7 ± 1.3)AthletesShooting (low intensity), sprinters (high intensity)

Vincent et al. (2017)Single group65Different levels of physical activityChildren (8–11)HealthyVarious

Wang and Youngstedt (2014)Single group15Light versus moderate EX versus controlAdults, OA (60–74)HealthyAE

Wennman et al. (2014)Observational6414Leisure versus commuting versus occupational EX versus controlYA, adults, OA (25–74)HealthyVarious

Williams et al. (2014)Observational234Light versus moderate-vigorous EX versus controlChildren (3–7)HealthyVarious

Yamanaka et al. (2015)Single group22Morning versus evening EX versus controlYA (22 ± 1.8)HealthyAE

Zheng et al. (2017)Observational452024Different levels of physical activityAdults, OA (30–79)HealthyVarious

(b)

ReferenceVolume/frequencyDurationSleep characteristics assessedOutcome measureResult

Aiello et al. (2016)30–150 min/day, 2–7 days/week2–6 monthsDSESSDecrease
Nocturnal hypopneaAHIDecrease

Alley et al. (2015)30 min/day3 daysTWsEEGDecrease

Ashrafinia et al. (2014)30 min/day, 5 days/week8 weeksSQPSQIIncrease
SOLPSQIDecrease

Baron et al. (2013)30 min/day, 3 days/week16 weeksSQ, SOL, WASOPSQI, WANo change
TST, SEWAIncrease

Brand et al. (2014)≥70 min/day, 2-3 days/weekAmount of deep sleepsEEGIncrease
SOL, TW, WASOsEEGDecrease

Chen et al. (2017)Self-reported2 weeksInsomniaICD-9-CM codesMore active decreased risk

Dishman et al. (2015)Tested once/2-3 years, 4 times8–12 yearsSleep disturbancesMedical consultationMore fit decrease

Du et al. (2015)20–60 min/day, 2–5 days/week8–26 weeksSQ, TSTPSQIIncrease
SOL, DSESS, PSQIDecrease

Durcan et al. (2014)30–60 min/day, 5 days/week12 weeksSQPSQIIncrease
2-3 days/weekFatigueFSSDecrease

Dzierzewski et al. (2014)20 min/day18 weeksSQSleep diaryIncrease
SOLSleep diaryNo change
WASOSleep diaryDecrease

Erlacher et al. (2015)60 min/day, 3 days/week6 weeksTW, WASOPSQIDecrease
SOL, TSTPSQINo change

Fairbrother et al. (2014)30 min/day4 daysTSTsEEGNo change
TW, SOL, WASOsEEGLowest during AM EX

Gambassi et al. (2015)2 days/week12 weeksSQ, SEPSQIIncrease
SOL, TST, DSPSQINo change

Harp (2015)30 min/day, 3 days/week15 weeksSQ, TSTPSQINo change

Harris et al. (2017) Self-reported1 weekSQ, WASOSleep diaryNo difference
SOLLower for athletes on weekends only
SEHigher for athletes on weekends only
TSTHigher for athletes on weekends only

Iftikhar et al. (2014)15–90 min/day, 3–5 days/week12–24 weeksDSESSDecrease
Nocturnal hypopneaAHIDecrease
SEESSIncrease

Killer et al. (2015)≥2 hours/day, ≥3 days/week18 daysTWWAIncrease
SQ, SEWADecrease
SOLWANo change

Kredlow et al. (2015)1 session/day1 dayTST, SEPSQI, sEEG, PSGIncrease
TWPSQI, sEEG, PSGNo change
SOL, WASOPSQI, sEEG, PSGDecrease
2–52 weeksSQ, TST, SEPSQI, sEEG, PSG, WAIncrease
SOLPSQIDecrease

Lang et al. (2016)1–105 daysSQ, SEPSQI, sEEG, Sleep logsIncrease
InsomniaISIDecrease

Løppenthin et al. (2014)20–30 min/day, 2-3 days/week8 weeksSQ, TST, SOLPSG, PSQIIn progress
DSESSIn progress

Melancon et al. (2015)1 hour/day, 3 days/week16 weeksWASOPSG, PSQIDecrease
SQ, SOL, TST, SEPSG, PSQINo change

Mendelson et al. (2016)180 minutes/week12 weeksSQ, TST, SEPSGIncrease
SOLPSGNo change

Nam et al. (2016)3 days/week6 monthsSleep disturbancesJHSSDecrease in both groups

Rethorst et al. (2015)4 KKW12 weeksSQIDS-CIncrease
16 KKW

Siddarth et al. (2014)1 hour/day, 1-2 days/weekSleep disturbancesPROMIS-SDSFFewer in mind-body group

Strand et al. (2013)Tested onceInsomniaHUNT-3 questionnaireMore fit decrease

Suppiah et al. (2015)16 hours/week1 weekDSKSS, PDSSNo difference
TSTWAGreater during control
WASOsEEGLower in high group
TSTsEEGNo difference

Suppiah et al. (2016)16 hours/week1 weekTST, WASOsEEGNo difference
TW, TST, WASOWAGreater during control
SEWANo change

Vincent et al. (2017)Various8 daysTST, SETANo change

Wang and Youngstedt (2014)~1 hour/week2 weeksTW, WASOWALower in moderate group
TSTWANo change

Wennman et al. (2014)VariousSQ, TSTQuestionnairesGreatest in those with high leisure EX

Williams et al. (2014)Data collected for ≥5 days every 6 months4 yearsTSTSleep logMore active decrease

Yamanaka et al. (2015)2 hours/day, 4 days/week1 weekSOL, WASO, TST, SEPSGNo change

Zheng et al. (2017)Self-reported1 yearInsomniaQuestionnairesMore active decreased risk

= number of participants; RCT = randomized controlled trial; EX = exercise; YA = young adults; OA = older adults; OSA = obstructive sleep apnea; SC = participants with sleep complaints; RA = rheumatoid arthritis; AE = aerobic exercise; RT = resistance training; = peak oxygen uptake; KKW = kilocalories per kilogram of body weight per week; DS = daytime sleepiness; TW = times woken from sleep; SQ = sleep quality; SOL = sleep-onset latency; TST = total sleep time; WASO = wake time after sleep onset; SE = sleep efficiency; ESS = Epworth Sleepiness Scale; AHI = Apnea-Hypopnea Index; PSQI = Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index; WA = wrist actigraphy; sEEG = sleep electroencephalography; FSS = Fatigue Severity Scale; PSG = polysomnography; ISI = Insomnia Severity Index; JHSS = Johns Hopkins Sleep Survey; AM = ante meridiem (morning); IDS-C = clinician-rated Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology; PROMIS-SDSF = Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System: Sleep Disturbance Short Form; HUNT-3 = Helseundersøkelsen i Nord-Trøndelag; KSS = Karolinska Sleepiness Scale; PDSS = Pediatric Daytime Sleepiness Scale; TA = triaxial accelerometer; ICD-9-CM = International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification
Age groups were based on the demarcations outlined in Table 2  [12].