Wound-Healing Potential of Cucurbita moschata Duchesne Fruit Peel Extract in a Rat Model of Excision Wound RepairRead the full article
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Evaluation of Cold Chain Management Performance for Temperature-Sensitive Pharmaceuticals at Public Health Facilities Supplied by the Jimma Pharmaceuticals Supply Agency Hub, Southwest Ethiopia: Pharmaceuticals Logistic Management Perspective Using a Multicentered, Mixed-Method Approach
Background. Effective and efficient cold chain management maximizes utilization of healthcare resources, reduces cold chain products wastage, and improves the quality of health services. It eventually guarantees that clients receive cold chain products they need at service delivery points. The objective of this study was to evaluate cold chain management performance for temperature-sensitive medicines at public health facilities in Southwest Ethiopia supplied by the Jimma Pharmaceuticals Fund and Supply Agency hub. Method and Materials. The study used an institution-based cross-sectional study design. Forty-seven (47) public health facilities in Southwest Ethiopia were evaluated using checklists adopted from the Logistic Indicators Assessment Tool, Vaccine Management Assessment Tool, and Logistic System Assessment Tool. Results. The study revealed that the mean availability of essential cold chain products was 72.1 ± 14.8% while the average stock-out rate was 26.2 ± 8.6%. The median stock-out duration was 23 ± 21 days for all visited public health facilities. Two hundred and sixty-three (43.06 ± 15.3%) of the public health facilities’ stock records were found accurate, and the wastage rate due to expiration was 9.2 ± 7.8% for all visited health facilities. Thirty public health facilities (63.8 ± 36.2%) had acceptable storage conditions. Conclusions and Recommendations. Supply chain performance at the study facilities was not adequate overall, and focused efforts need to be directed at managing the availability of critical cold chain medicines. Some cold chain management challenges demand the attention of the top management, while the rest can be addressed by operational management at the facilities through provision of appropriate training and supervision of the cold chain pharmaceutical handlers.
Thermotherapy Effects on Healthy and Type 2 Diabetes Human Skeletal Muscle Myoblast Cell Lines
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease characterized by elevated blood glucose levels with associated disordered carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Type 2 diabetes (T2D) specifically has been shown to cause a decrease in skeletal muscle mass due to oxidative stress. This study investigated a treatment option for T2D through thermotherapy on healthy (HSMM) and T2D (D-HSMM) human skeletal muscle cells. The goals were to determine the effects of thermotherapy, long-term (chronic) and short-term (acute), on HSMM and D-HSMM cell viabilities and oxidative stress. HSMM and D-HSMM cells were grown to confluency, harvested, and counted to determine density. Acute and chronic heat treatments were applied to both cell lines. The chronic treatment consisted of a 30-minute exposure to 40°C, three times a week for three weeks; the acute treatment was a one-time exposure. Oxidative stress assays and cell viabilities were tested 24 hours after heat treatments. Results indicated no significant effect on the cell viability of HSMM and D-HSMM cells. The acute treatment had a significant increase () of MDA concentration compared to the chronic treatment. The chronic treatment had a significant increase () in catalase activity compared to the acute treatment. The SOD activity had no significant change () between the chronic and acute treatments. In conclusion, acute thermotherapy may not be beneficial for skeletal muscle cells due to the observed increase in oxidative stress, especially in the D-HSMM cells.
Quality Evaluation of Ethambutol Hydrochloride Tablet Batches Available in Governmental Health Facilities of Jimma Town, Southwest Ethiopia
Background. The availability of poor-quality drugs on the drug market might favor the ineffectiveness of the drug and/antimicrobial resistance. Aim. To evaluate the quality of similar batches of ethambutol hydrochloride tablets available in different governmental health facilities of Jimma town, southwest Ethiopia. Methods. The World Health Organization checklist was used to inspect the storage area of health facilities and check medicines for the sign of counterfeit. The test was conducted as per the United States Pharmacopeia on six similar batches of ethambutol hydrochloride sampled from different governmental health facilities. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20, and one-way ANOVA was used for comparing the dissolution profile and weight variation of batches. Results. Three health facilities did not comply with the storage area specifications for pharmaceuticals. No batches have shown any sign of counterfeit. All of the tablet batches tested complied with USP specifications for weight variation, percentage purity, and dissolution test. Conclusions and Recommendation. The entire tablet batches complied with the World Health Organization specification for packaging and labelling of pharmaceuticals. All tablet batches complied with the test for weight variation, purity of drug substance, and dissolution. Since some health facilities did not comply with at least one specification for storage of pharmaceuticals, regulatory agencies and stack holders are advised to inspect the health facilities to ensure appropriate storage of pharmaceuticals in health facilities.
A Pharmacokinetic Evaluation of a Pectin-Based Oral Multiparticulate Matrix Carrier of Carbamazepine
Background. Carbamazepine is a drug used in the treatment of neurological disorders such as epilepsy. However, due to its erratic absorption, oral bioavailability is often poor. There is, therefore, the need to develop alternative formulations for carbamazepine with better pharmacokinetic characteristics. Aim. The aim of this study was to formulate an oral modified-release multiparticulate matrix of carbamazepine from cocoa pod husk (CPH) pectin and evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of this formulation using in vitro and in vivo models. Methods. CPH pectin was extracted from cocoa pod husks with hot aqueous and citric acid solutions. Oral multiparticulate carbamazepine matrices were formulated from CPH pectin cross-linked with calcium. The formulation was evaluated for carbamazepine content and release profile in vitro. For in vivo pharmacokinetic profile estimation, rats were put into 4 groups of 5 animals each to receive carbamazepine multiparticulate matrix formulations A and B, carbamazepine powder, and Tegretol CR®. Animals in each group received 200 mg/kg of each drug via the oral route. Maximum plasma concentration , area under the concentration-time curve (AUC), elimination rate constant , and terminal half-life of the formulations were estimated by noncompartmental analysis. Results. The pectin extraction from fresh cocoa pod husks using hot aqueous and citric acid solutions gave pectin yields of 9.63% and 11.54%, respectively. The drug content of carbamazepine in CPH pectin formulations A and B was 95% and 96%, respectively. There was controlled and sustained release of carbamazepine for both formulations A and B in vitro. AUC0⟶36 (176.20 ± 7.97 µg.h/mL), (8.45 ± 0.71 μg/mL), (12 ± 1.28 h), and (13.75 ± 3.28 h) of formulation A showed a moderately enhanced and comparable pharmacokinetic profile to Tegretol CR® (AUC0⟶36: 155 ± 7.15 µg.h/mL, : 8.24 ± 0.45 μg/mL, : 8.0 ± 2.23 h, and : 13.51 ± 2.87 h). Conclusion. Findings from the study suggest that formulations of CPH pectin had the potential to control and maintain therapeutic concentrations of carbamazepine in circulation over a period of time in the rat model.
Antimycobacterial Activity, Synergism, and Mechanism of Action Evaluation of Novel Polycyclic Amines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis
Mycobacterium tuberculosis has developed extensive resistance to numerous antimycobacterial agents used in the treatment of tuberculosis. Insufficient intracellular accumulation of active moieties allows for selective survival of mycobacteria with drug resistance mutations and accordingly promotes the development of microbial drug resistance. Discovery of compounds with new mechanisms of action and physicochemical properties that promote intracellular accumulation, or compounds that act synergistically with other antimycobacterial drugs, has the potential to reduce and prevent further drug resistance. To this end, antimycobacterial activity, mechanism of action, and synergism in combination therapy were investigated for a series of polycyclic amine derivatives. Compound selection was based on the presence of moieties with possible antimycobacterial activity, the inclusion of bulky lipophilic carriers to promote intracellular accumulation, and previously demonstrated bioactivity that potentially support inhibition of efflux pump activity. The most potent antimycobacterial demonstrated a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC99) of 9.6 μM against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv. Genotoxicity and inhibition of the cytochrome bc1 respiratory complex were excluded as mechanisms of action for all compounds. Inhibition of cell wall synthesis was identified as a likely mechanism of action for the two most active compounds (14 and 15). Compounds 5 and 6 demonstrated synergistic activity with the known Rv1258c efflux pump substrate, spectinomycin, pointing to possible efflux pump inhibition. For this series, the nature of the side chain, rather than the type of polycyclic carrier, seems to play a determining role in the antimycobacterial activity and cytotoxicity of the compounds. Contrariwise, the nature of the polycyclic carrier, particularly the azapentacycloundecane cage, appears to promote synergistic activity. Results point to the possibility of combining an azapentacycloundecane carrier with a side chain that promotes antimycobacterial activity to develop dual acting molecules for the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Suppression of Proinflammatory Cytokines by Etlingera alba (A.D.) Poulsen Rhizome Extract and Its Antibacterial Properties
Etlingera alba is one of the Etlingera plants that has not been studied intensively. Plants that belong to the same genus have similar constituents and pharmacological activities. Thus, we aim to investigate the chemical composition and pharmacological activities, namely, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties, of E. alba rhizome extract (EA). The chemical constituent was detected using the test tube method. The inflammatory model rats were obtained by inducing them with 1% carrageenan, and their palm edema volume and cytokine levels, namely, IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α, were measured. Antibacterial activity was performed with broth microdilution. The phytochemical screening of EA was detecting alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, steroids, and phenols. The EA has anti-inflammatory activity by reducing the palms’ edema volume and cytokine levels (IL-6, IL-12, and TNF-α), and the optimal concentration was 400 mg/kg body weight (BW). On the other hand, EA also exhibited antibacterial properties against E. coli and S. enterica. In conclusion, similar to other Etlingera plants, EA also demonstrates pharmacological activities, namely, anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties.