Figure 2: Stress-induced modulations in dopaminergic system and gastric ulcer. Hormonal pathways by which psychological and physical stress induce modulations in stomach functioning, resulting in an increase production of gastric ulceration and modulation of dopaminergic system. Up arrows indicate increased response, down arrows indicate decreased response, triangles indicate possible therapeutic targets. Abbreviations: CRH: corticotrophin-releasing hormone; ACTH: adrenocorticotrophin-releasing factor; PGE2 and prostaglandin E2; HCL: hydrochloric acid; H+K+-ATPase: hydrogen-potassium ATPase: DA: dopamine; DA-1R: DA receptor 1; DA-2R: DA receptor 2.