Table 1: Summary of published manuscripts reporting on IV drug self-administration under concurrent-choice schedules. Columns show the primary drug option(s), the alternative reinforcer(s) (sometimes also a drug), the species in which studies were conducted, the primary effect examined in the study, and the reference. Numbers in parentheses show drug unit doses in mg/kg/injection.

#Drug (dose in mg/kg/inj)Alternative reinforcerSpecies Main effect examinedRef.

1Cocaine (0.05–0.1)Cocaine (0.013–0.8)Rhesus Effect of drug dose [9]
2Cocaine (0.05–0.1)Cocaine (0.05–0.1)Rhesus Effect of schedule type [30]
3Cocaine (0.05 or 0.1)Cocaine (0.013–0.8)Rhesus Effect of drug dose [34]
4Cocaine (0.025–0.2)Cocaine (0.025–0.2)Rhesus Effects of dose and schedule manipulations [33]
5Cocaine (0.03–0.3)Cocaine (0.03–0.3)Rhesus Effect of infusion delay [32]
6Cocaine (0.025–0.05)Cocaine (0.025–0.05)
Food pellet
Rhesus Effect of reinforcement delay [37]
7Cocaine (0.05–0.2)Cocaine (0.05–0.2)Rhesus Effect of reinforcement probability [38]
8Cocaine (0.025–0.1)Cocaine (0.025–0.1)Rhesus Application of generalized matching law [40]
9Cocaine (0.025–0.1)Cocaine (0.025–0.1) Rhesus Effect of schedule type [39]
10Cocaine (0.1–0.75)Cocaine (0.1–0.75)Rhesus Effect of punishment (electric shock) [71]
11Cocaine (0.3–1)Cocaine (0.3–1)RatEffect of infusion rate [35]
12Nicotine (0.015)Nicotine (0.015)RatEffect of infusion rate[36]
13Cocaine (0.05)
Alfentanil (0.001–0.004)
Methohexital (0.25–0.5)
Cocaine (0.05)
Alfentanil (0.001–0.004)
Methohexital (0.25–0.5)
Rhesus Application of generalized matching law [41]
14Cocaine (0.1–0.056)
Methohexital (0.32)
Cocaine (0.1–0.056)
Remifentanil (0.0001–0.00003)
Methohexital (0.32)
RhesusApplication of generalized matching law[42]
15Cocaine (0.05–1.5)Cocaine (0.1–1.5)
Methylphenidate (0.075–0.07)
Diethylpropion (0.5–1)
Rhesus Effect of various pharmacological and environmental manipulations[31]
16Cocaine (0.05–1.5) Methylphenidate (0.075–0.7)RhesusDrug versus drug preference[10]
17Cocaine (0.05–0.2)d,l-Cathinone (0.05–0.2)RhesusDrug versus drug preference[47]
18Cocaine (0–0.1)Procaine (0.4–1.6)RhesusDrug versus drug preference[46]
19Cocaine (0.01–0.03)PTT (0.01–0.03)RhesusDrug versus drug preference[50]
20Cocaine (0.01–0.03)Remifentanil (0.0001–0.0003)RhesusBehavioral economic analysis of choice[51]
21Cocaine (0.03)Remifentanil (0.00003)RhesusEffect of chronic morphine administration and withdrawal on drug choice[78]
22Cocaine (0.267 or 0.8) Nicotine (8–75) RatDrug versus drug preference[49]
23Cocaine (0.4)Heroin (0.025)RatEffect of home cage environment[52]
24Secobarbital (18–100 mg)
Chlordiazepoxide (5–20 mg)
RhesusEffect of dependence and withdrawal[29]
25Cocaine (0.1)Cocaine (0.01–0.56)
Remifentanil (0.00003–0.003)
Cocaine + Remifentanil
RhesusEffect of drug mixtures on drug choice[69]
26Cocaine (0.038–3)Heroin (0.025–0.05)
Cocaine + Heroin
RatEffect of drug mixtures on drug choice[68]
27Cocaine (0.8)Cocaine (0.267–2.4)
SKF82958 (0.003–0.03)
(+)-PHNO (0.001–0.01)
SKF82958 + (+)-PHNO
RatEffect of drug mixtures on drug choice[48]
28Cocaine (0.05–0.1)Cocaine (0.05–0.1) + histamine (0.00037–0.0005)RhesusEffect of punishment (IV histamine) delay on drug choice [73]
29Cocaine (0.3)Food pelletRhesus First study of cocaine versus food choice[53]
30Cocaine (0.03–1)Food pelletRhesusEffect of response requirement [58]
31Cocaine (0.03–1)Food pelletRhesusEffect of food availability conditions [59]
32Cocaine (0.05–0.4)Food pelletRhesusBehavioral economic analysis of choice[99]
33Cocaine (0.05–0.2)Food pelletRhesusBehavioral economic analysis of choice[100]
34Cocaine (0.025–0.05)Food pelletRhesusApplication of generalized matching law[101]
35Cocaine (0.0032–0.32)Food pelletRhesusEffect of dose and cocaine pretreatment[54]
36Cocaine (0.33)Food pellet or waterRatEffect of alternative reinforcer on drug choice[63]
37Cocaine (0.25)Glucose/Saccharin solutionRatEffect of alternative reinforcer on drug choice[62]
38Cocaine (0.25–1.5)Saccharin or SucroseRatEffect of sweet solutions on drug choice[65]
39Cocaine (0.1–0.3)Food pelletRhesusEffect of chronic lithium treatment[86]
40Cocaine (0.05–0.3)Food pelletRhesusEffect of chronic antipsychotic treatment [85]
41Cocaine (0.0032–0.1)Food pelletRhesusEffect of monoamine releasers with varying selectivity for dopamine versus serotonin[17]
42Cocaine (0.0032–0.1)Food pelletRhesusEffect of various pharmacological and environmental manipulations[55]
43Cocaine (0.0032–0.1)Food pelletRhesusEffect of chronic kappa opioid treatment [84]
44Cocaine (0.0032–0.1)Food pelletRhesusEffect of chronic methadone treatment[18]
45Cocaine (0.003–0.1)Food pellet
10% Sweet Condensed milk
Squirrel monkey
Effect of acute and chronic aripiprazole treatment[93]
46Cocaine (0.003–0.03)Food pelletCynomolgus Effect of 8-OH-DPAT treatment[83]
47Cocaine (0-1)Ensure liquid foodRatEffect of acute and chronic aripiprazole treatment[61]
Cocaine (0-1)Ensure liquid foodRatEffect of amphetamine treatment and environmental manipulations [81]
48Cocaine (0.25)SaccharinRatEffect of diazepam treatment[82]
49Cocaine (0.0032–0.1)Food pelletRhesusEffect of punishment (IV histamine)[72]
50Cocaine (0.0032–0.1)Food pelletRhesusEffect of exposure to and withdrawal from extended cocaine access[80]
51Cocaine (0.003–0.03)Food pelletCynomolgus Effect of social hierarchy[91]
52Cocaine (0.003–0.1)Food pelletCynomolgusEffect of social hierarchy and environmental stimuli [56]
53Cocaine (0.03–0.56)
Procaine (1–10)
Food pelletRhesusEffect of drug type and food reinforcer magnitude[57]
54Cocaine (0.003–0.3)
Methylphenidate (0.003–0.1)
Amphetamine (0.003–0.1)
Atomoxetine (0.01–0.3)
Desipramine (0.3–1)
Food pelletRhesusEffects of drug type on drug versus food choice[102]
55Cocaine (0.0032–0.1)
Heroin (0.0032–0.1)
Cocaine + Heroin
Food pelletRhesusEffects of drug mixtures on drug choice[67]
56Cocaine (0–0.1)Food pelletRhesusReinstatement of cocaine choice by dopaminergic compounds [103]
57Heroin (0.1)FoodBaboonEffect of economic conditions [60]
58Heroin (0.055–0.83)Food pellet ± Heroin (0.055–0.83)BaboonVarious pharmacological and environmental manipulations[66]
59Heroin (0.32–0.96)Food pelletBaboonEffect of methadone, naloxone treatment[74]
60Heroin (0.32 or 1)Food pelletBaboonEffect of morphine, naloxone, secobarbital[75]
61Heroin (0.0032–0.1)
Heroin + SNC80
Food pelletRhesusEffect of drug mixtures on drug choice[70]
62Heroin (0.0032–0.1)Food pelletRhesusEffect of methadone, buprenorphine, naloxone treatment in nondependent and opioid-dependent monkeys [76]
63Heroin (0.0032–0.1)Food pelletRhesusEffect of morphine, amphetamine, clonidine, antalarmin, norbinaltorphimine treatment in opioid-dependent monkeys[79]
64MDMA (0.03–0.3)Food pelletRhesusEffect of ambient temperature[92]
65MDMA (0.03–0.3)Food pelletRhesusEffect of thyroid hormone levels[94]
66Methamphetamine (0.06)Food pelletRatDrug versus food preference[64]