Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 915159, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/915159
Research Article

Silicone-Acyclovir Controlled Release Devices Suppress Primary Herpes Simplex Virus-2 and Varicella Zoster Virus Infections In Vitro

1Towson University Herpes Virus Lab, Department of Biological Sciences, Towson University, Towson, MD 21252, USA
2McDaniel College, Department of Biology, Westminster, MD 21157, USA
3Georgetown and George Mason University, Advanced Biomedical Science Graduate Certificate Program, Manassas, VA 20110, USA
4Department of Pathology, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA
5Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, and Bioinformatics Program, Towson University, Towson, MD 21252, USA
6Department of Pharmacology and Molecular Sciences, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA

Received 13 March 2013; Accepted 8 July 2013

Academic Editor: Thérèse Di Paolo-Chênevert

Copyright © 2013 Carol L. Berkower et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. J. Davison, “Evolution of sexually transmitted and sexually transmissible human herpesviruses,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1230, no. 1, pp. E37–E49, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. C. Johnston, D. M. Koelle, and A. Wald, “HSV-2: in pursuit of a vaccine,” Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 121, no. 12, pp. 4600–4609, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. D. W. White, R. Suzanne Beard, and E. S. Barton, “Immune modulation during latent herpesvirus infection,” Immunological Reviews, vol. 245, no. 1, pp. 189–208, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. R. J. Whitley and B. Roizman, “Herpes simplex virus infections,” The Lancet, vol. 357, no. 9267, pp. 1513–1518, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. P. E. Pellet and B. Roizman, “The family herpesviridae: a brief introduction,” in Fields Virology, D. M. Knipe and P. M. Howley, Eds., pp. 2479–2499, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  6. F. Xu, M. R. Sternberg, B. J. Kottiri et al., “Trends in herpes simplex virus type 1 and type 2 seroprevalence in the United States,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 296, no. 8, pp. 964–973, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. F. Xu, M. R. Sternberg, S. L. Gottlieb et al., “Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 among persons aged 14–49 years—United States, 2005–2008,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 59, pp. 456–459, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  8. J. W. Gnann Jr., “Varicella-zoster virus: prevention through vaccination,” Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 560–570, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. P. Leone, D. T. Fleming, A. W. Gilsenan, L. Li, and S. Justus, “Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus-2 in suburban primary care offices in the United States,” Sexually Transmitted Diseases, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 311–316, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. B. Knaup, S. Schünemann, and M. H. Wolff, “Subclinical reactivation of herpes simplex virus type 1 in the oral cavity,” Oral Microbiology and Immunology, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 281–283, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. D. T. Fleming, G. M. Mcquillan, R. E. Johnson et al., “Herpes simplex virus type 2 in the United States, 1976 to 1994,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 337, no. 16, pp. 1105–1111, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. Wald, J. Zeh, S. Selke et al., “Reactivation of genital herpes simplex virus type 2 infection in asymptomatic seropositive persons,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 342, no. 12, pp. 844–850, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. Tanton, H. A. Weiss, J. LeGoff et al., “Patterns of herpes simplex virus shedding over 1 month and the impact of acyclovir and HIV in HSV-2-seropositive women in Tanzania,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 87, no. 5, pp. 406–411, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. G. Andrei and R. Snoeck, “Emerging drugs for varicella-zoster virus infections,” Expert Opinion on Emerging Drugs, vol. 16, no. 3, pp. 507–535, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. B. Roizman, D. M. Knipe, and R. J. Whitley, “Herpes simplex viruses,” in Fields Virology, D. M. Knipe and P. M. Howley, Eds., pp. 2501–2601, Lippincott Williams & WIlkins, Philadelphia, Pa, USA, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  16. J. Piret and G. Boivin, “Resistance of herpes simplex viruses to nucleoside analogues: mechanisms, prevalence, and management,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 459–472, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. Woo and S. J. Challacombe, “Management of recurrent oral herpes simplex infections,” Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology, Oral Radiology and Endodontology, vol. 103, supplement 12, pp. S11–e18, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  18. P. De Miranda and M. R. Blum, “Pharmacokinetics of acyclovir after intravenous and oral administration,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 12, pp. 29–37, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. O. L. Laskin, J. A. Longstreth, and R. Saral, “Pharmacokinetics and tolerance of acyclovir, a new anti-herpesvirus agent, in humans,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 393–398, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. S. Lietman, “Acyclovir clinical pharmacology. An overview,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 73, no. 1A, pp. 193–196, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. T. Jacob, J. M. Baeten, J. P. Hughes et al., “A post-trial assessment of factors influencing study drug adherence in a randomized biomedical HIV-1 prevention trial,” AIDS and Behavior, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 897–904, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. Watson-Jones, K. Baisley, M. Rusizoka et al., “Measurement and predictors of adherence in a trial of HSV suppressive therapy in Tanzania,” Contemporary Clinical Trials, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 504–512, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. L. Corey, A. Wald, R. Patel et al., “Once-daily valacyclovir to reduce the risk of transmission of genital herpes,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 350, no. 1, pp. 11–20, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. K. H. Fife, T. J. Warren, R. D. Ferrera et al., “Effect of valacyclovir on viral shedding in immunocompetent patients with recurrent herpes simplex virus 2 genital herpes: a US-based randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial,” Mayo Clinic Proceedings, vol. 81, no. 10, pp. 1321–1327, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. R. Gupta, A. Wald, E. Krantz et al., “Valacyclovir and acyclovir for suppression of shedding of herpes simplex virus in the genital tract,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 190, no. 8, pp. 1374–1381, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. L. G. Kaplowitz, D. Baker, L. Gelb et al., “Prolonged continuous acyclovir treatment of normal adults with frequently recurring genital herpes simplex virus infection,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 265, no. 6, pp. 747–751, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. J. Mertz, C. C. Jones, J. Millis et al., “Long-term acyclovir suppression of frequently recurring genital herpes simplex virus infection. A multicenter double-blind trial,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 260, no. 2, pp. 201–206, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. K. Tyring, D. Baker, and W. Snowden, “Valacyclovir for herpes simplex virus infection: long-term safety and sustained efficacy after 20 years' experience with acyclovir,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 186, supplement 1, pp. S40–S46, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. E. E. Freeman, H. A. Weiss, J. R. Glynn, P. L. Cross, J. A. Whitworth, and R. J. Hayes, “Herpes simplex virus 2 infection increases HIV acquisition in men and women: systematic review and meta-analysis of longitudinal studies,” AIDS, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 73–83, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. P. Hughes, J. M. Baeten, J. R. Lingappa et al., “Determinants of per-coital-act HIV-1 infectivity among African HIV-1-serodiscordant couples,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 205, no. 3, pp. 358–365, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. Wald and K. Link, “Risk of human immunodeficiency virus infection in herpes simplex virus type 2-seropositive persons: a meta-analysis,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 185, no. 1, pp. 45–52, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. E. Hope-Simpson, “The nature of herpes zoster: a long-term study and a new hypothesis,” Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine, vol. 58, pp. 9–20, 1965. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. J. Katz, E. M. Cooper, R. R. Walther, E. W. Sweeney, and R. H. Dworkin, “Acute pain in herpes zoster and its impact on health-related quality of life,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 39, no. 3, pp. 342–348, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Klein, K. B. Miller, K. Sprague, J. A. Desjardin, and D. R. Snydman, “A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of valacyclovir prophylaxis to prevent zoster recurrence from months 4 to 24 after BMT,” Bone Marrow Transplantation, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 294–299, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. W. Opstelten, J. Eekhof, A. K. Neven, and T. Verheij, “Treatment of herpes zoster,” Canadian Family Physician, vol. 54, no. 3, pp. 373–377, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. E. Vickrey, S. Allen, J. Mehta, and S. Singhal, “Acyclovir to prevent reactivation of varicella zoster virus (herpes zoster) in multiple myeloma patients receiving bortezomib therapy,” Cancer, vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 229–232, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. T. P. Johnson, R. Frey, M. Modugno, T. P. Brennan, and B. J. Margulies, “Development of an aciclovir implant for the effective long-term control of herpes simplex virus type-1 infection in Vero cells and in experimentally infected SKH-1 mice,” International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 428–435, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. M. Maeda, S. Moriuchi, A. Sano, and T. Yoshimine, “New drug delivery system for water-soluble drugs using silicone and its usefulness for local treatment: application of GCV-silicone to GCV/HSV-tk gene therapy for brain tumor,” Journal of Controlled Release, vol. 84, no. 1-2, pp. 15–25, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. L. J. Reed and H. Muench, “A simple method of estimating fifty per cent endpoints,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 27, no. 3, pp. 493–497, 1938. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. G. J. Mertz, L. Eron, R. Kaufman et al., “Prolonged continuous versus intermittent oral acyclovir treatment in normal adults with frequently recurring genital herpes simplex virus infection,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 85, no. 2 A, pp. 14–19, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. S. Magaret, C. Johnston, and A. Wald, “Use of the designation “shedder” in mucosal detection of herpes simplex virus DNA involving repeated sampling,” Sexually Transmitted Infections, vol. 85, no. 4, pp. 270–275, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. G. J. Mertz, J. Beneditti, R. Ashley, S. A. Selke, and L. Corey, “Risk factors for the sexual transmission of genital herpes,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 116, no. 3, pp. 197–202, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. Wald and L. Corey, “Persistence in the population: epidemiology, transmission,” in Human Herpesviruses: Biology, Therapy, and Immunoprophylaxis, A. Arvin, G. Campadelli-Fiume, E. Mocarski et al., Eds., Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  44. A. Wald, J. Zeh, G. Barnum, L. G. Davis, and L. Corey, “Suppression of subclinical shedding of herpes simplex virus type 2 with acyclovir,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 124, no. 1I, pp. 8–15, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. J. T. Schiffer, A. Magaret, S. Selke, L. Corey, and A. Wald, “Detailed analysis of mucosal herpes simplex virus-2 replication kinetics with and without antiviral therapy,” Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, vol. 66, no. 11, Article ID dkr346, pp. 2593–2600, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. T. Schiffer, A. Wald, S. Selke, L. Corey, and A. Magaret, “The kinetics of mucosal herpes simplex virus-2 infection in humans: evidence for rapid viral-host interactions,” Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 204, no. 4, pp. 554–561, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. D. W. Kimberlin and D. J. Rouse, “Clinical practice. Genital herpes,” The New England journal of medicine, vol. 350, no. 19, pp. 1970–1977, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. M. Douglas, C. Critchlow, and J. Benedetti, “A double-blind study of oral acyclovir for suppression of recurrences of genital herpes simplex virus infection,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 310, no. 24, pp. 1551–1556, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. G. S. Goldman and P. G. King, “Review of the United States universal varicella vaccination program: herpes zoster incidence rates, cost-effectiveness, and vaccine efficacy based primarily on the Antelope Valley Varicella Active Surveillance Project data,” Vaccine, vol. 31, no. 13, pp. 1680–1694, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  50. S. L. Thomas, J. G. Wheeler, and A. J. Hall, “Contacts with varicella or with children and protection against herpes zoster in adults: a case-control study,” The Lancet, vol. 360, no. 9334, pp. 678–682, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. N. Oxman, M. J. Levin, G. R. Johnson et al., “A vaccine to prevent herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia in older adults,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 352, no. 22, pp. 2271–2365, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. Fashner and A. L. Bell, “Herpes zoster and postherpetic neuralgia: prevention and management,” American Family Physician, vol. 83, no. 12, pp. 1432–1437, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. D. C. Musch, D. F. Martin, J. F. Gordon, M. D. Davis, and B. D. Kuppermann, “Treatment of cytomegalovirus ketinitis with a sustained-release ganciclovir implant,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 337, no. 2, pp. 83–90, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. G. J. Wellenberg, W. H. M. Van Der Poel, and J. T. Van Oirschot, “Viral infections and bovine mastitis: a review,” Veterinary Microbiology, vol. 88, no. 1, pp. 27–45, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. Stiles, “Feline herpesvirus,” Clinical Techniques in Small Animal Practice, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 178–185, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus