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Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 158936, 8 pages
Research Article

Prophylactic Role of Averrhoa carambola (Star Fruit) Extract against Chemically Induced Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Swiss Albino Mice

Radiation & Cancer Biology Laboratory, Department of Zoology, University of Rajasthan, Jaipur 302 004, India

Received 4 January 2014; Accepted 10 January 2014; Published 19 February 2014

Academic Editor: Mustafa F. Lokhandwala

Copyright © 2014 Ritu Singh et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Liver cancer remains one of the severe lethal malignancies worldwide and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common form. The current study was designed to evaluate the prophylactic role of the fruit of Averrhoa carambola (star fruit or Kamrak) on diethylnitrosamine- (DENA-) induced (15 mg/kg b.wt.; single i.p. injection) and CCl4-promoted (1.6 g/kg b.wt. in corn oil thrice a week for 24 weeks) liver cancer in Swiss albino mice. Administration of ACE was made orally at a dose of 25 mg/kg b.wt/day for 5 consecutive days and it was withdrawn 48 hrs before the first administration of DENA (preinitiational stage). CCl4 was given after 2 weeks of DENA administration. A cent percent tumor incidence was noted in carcinogen treated animals while ACE administration resulted in a considerable reduction in tumor incidence, tumor yield, and tumor burden. Further, ACE treatment brings out a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation ( ) along with an elevation in the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, , and catalase, ), nonenzymatic antioxidant (reduced glutathione, ), and total proteins ( ) when compared to the carcinogen treated control. These results demonstrate that ACE prevents the DENA/CCl4 induced adverse physical and biochemical alterations during hepatic carcinogenesis in mice. This study suggests the prophylactic role of Averrhoa carambola against hepatocellular carcinoma in mice; therefore, it could be employed for the further screening as a good chemopreventive natural supplement against cancer.