Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 507151, 14 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/507151
Review Article

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Heparin and Its Derivatives: A Systematic Review

1Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran
2Faculty of Pharmacy, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, Iran
3Faculty of Pharmacy, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran

Received 24 February 2015; Accepted 24 April 2015

Academic Editor: Berend Olivier

Copyright © 2015 Sarah Mousavi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. B. Casu, “Heparin structure,” Pathophysiology of Haemostasis and Thrombosis, vol. 20, supplement 1, pp. 62–73, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  2. J. Hirsh, R. Raschke, T. E. Warkentin, J. E. Dalen, D. Deykin, and L. Poller, “Heparin: mechanism of action, pharmacokinetics, dosing considerations, monitoring, efficacy, and safety,” Chest, vol. 108, no. 4, supplement, pp. 258S–275S, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. Fareed, D. A. Hoppensteadt, and R. L. Bick, “An update on heparins at the beginning of the new millennium,” Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 5–21, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. J. Hirsh, “Drug therapy: heparin,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 324, no. 22, pp. 1565–1574, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. R. J. Ludwig, “Therapeutic use of heparin beyond anticoagulation,” Current Drug Discovery Technologies, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 281–289, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. E. Young, “The anti-inflammatory effects of heparin and related compounds,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 122, no. 6, pp. 743–752, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. A. R. Jadad, R. A. Moore, D. Carroll et al., “Assessing the quality of reports of randomized clinical trials: is blinding necessary?” Controlled Clinical Trials, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1–12, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. K. F. Schulz, D. G. Altman, and D. Moher, “CONSORT 2010 statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials,” International Journal of Surgery, vol. 9, no. 8, pp. 672–677, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. T. Ahmed, J. Garrigo, and I. Danta, “Preventing bronchoconstriction in exercise-induced asthma with inhaled heparin,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 329, no. 2, pp. 90–95, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. Z. Diamant, M. C. Timmers, H. Van Der Veen, C. P. Page, F. J. Van Der Meer, and P. J. Sterk, “Effect of inhaled heparin on allergen-induced early and late asthmatic responses in patients with atopic asthma,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 153, no. 6, pp. 1790–1795, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Duong, D. Cockcroft, L.-P. Boulet et al., “The effect of IVX-0142, a heparin-derived hypersulfated disaccharide, on the allergic airway responses in asthma,” Allergy, vol. 63, no. 9, pp. 1195–1201, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. A. M. Fal, M. Kraus-Filarska, J. Miecielica, and J. Malolepszy, “Mechanisms of action of nebulized low-molecular-weight heparin in patients with bronchial asthma,” The Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 113, no. 2, supplement, p. S36, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. J. Jerzynska, I. Stelmach, P. Majak, and P. Kuna, “The effect of inhaled heparin on airway responsiveness to histamine and metacholine in asthmatic children,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 109, no. 1, supplement 1, p. S39, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  14. A. F. Kalpaklioğlu, Y. S. Demirel, S. Saryal, and Z. Misirligil, “Effect of pretreatment with heparin on pulmonary and cutaneous response,” Journal of Asthma, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 337–343, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. I. Stelmach, J. Jerzynska, A. Brzozowska, and P. Kuna, “The effect of inhaled heparin on postleukotriene bronchoconstriction in children with asthma,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 109, no. 1, supplement 1, p. S39, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  16. I. Stelmach, J. Jerzynska, W. Stelmach et al., “The effect of inhaled heparin on airway responsiveness to histamine and leukotriene D4,” Allergy and Asthma Proceedings, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 59–65, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. Y. S. Ang, N. Mahmud, B. White et al., “Randomized comparison of unfractionated heparin with corticosteroids in severe active inflammatory bowel disease,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 1015–1022, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. C. Folwaczny, B. Wiebecke, and K. Loeschke, “Unfractioned heparin in the therapy of patients with highly active inflammatory bowel disease,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 94, no. 6, pp. 1551–1555, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. Panes, M. Esteve, E. Cabre et al., “Comparison of heparin and steroids in the treatment of moderate and severe ulcerative colitis,” Gastroenterology, vol. 119, no. 4, pp. 903–908, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. P. Zezos, G. Papaioannou, N. Nikolaidis et al., “Low-molecular-weight heparin (enoxaparin) as adjuvant therapy in the treatment of active ulcerative colitis: a randomized, controlled, comparative study,” Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, vol. 23, no. 10, pp. 1443–1453, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. A. Vrij, J. M. Jansen, E. J. Schoon, H. C. Hemker, and R. W. Stockbrügger, “Low molecular weight heparin treatment in steroid refractory ulcerative colitis: clinical outcome and influence on mucosal capillary thrombi,” Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology, Supplement, vol. 36, no. 234, pp. 41–47, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. M. Borgioli, D. J. Coster, R. F. T. Fan et al., “Effect of heparin surface modification of polymethylmethacrylate intraocular lenses on signs of postoperative inflammation after extracapsular cataract extraction: one-year results of a double-masked multicenter study,” Ophthalmology, vol. 99, no. 8, pp. 1248–1255, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. Colin, S. Roncin, and M. Wenzel, “Efficacy of heparin surface-modified IOLs in reducing postoperative inflammatory reactions in patients with exfoliation syndrome—a double-blind comparative study,” European Journal of Implant and Refractive Surgery, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 266–270, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. Y. B. Özkurt, A. Taşkiran, N. Erdogan, B. Kandemir, and Ö. K. Doğan, “Effect of heparin in the intraocular irrigating solution on postoperative inflammation in the pediatric cataract surgery,” Clinical Ophthalmology, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 363–365, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. V. A. Vasavada, M. R. Praveen, S. K. Shah, R. H. Trivedi, and A. R. Vasavada, “Anti-inflammatory effect of low-molecular-weight heparin in pediatric cataract surgery: a randomized clinical trial,” The American Journal of Ophthalmology, vol. 154, no. 2, pp. 252–258, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. T. Kohnen, B. Dick, V. Hessemer, D. D. Koch, and K. W. Jacobi, “Effect of heparin in irrigating solution on inflammation following small incision cataract surgery,” Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 237–243, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. Ashraf, Y. Tian, D. Cowan, A. Entress, P. G. Martin, and K. G. Watterson, “Release of proinflammatory cytokines during pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass: heparin-bonded versus nonbonded oxygenators,” Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 1790–1794, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J.-O. Defraigne, J. Pincemail, R. Larbuisson, F. Blaffart, and R. Limet, “Cytokine release and neutrophil activation are not prevented by heparin- coated circuits and aprotinin administration,” Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 69, no. 4, pp. 1084–1091, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. R. de Vroege, W. van Oeveren, J. van Klarenbosch et al., “The impact of heparin-coated cardiopulmonary bypass circuits on pulmonary function and the release of inflammatory mediators,” Anesthesia and Analgesia, vol. 98, no. 6, pp. 1586–1594, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. Y. Misawa, K. Kawahito, H. Konishi, and K. Fuse, “Cytokine mediated endothelial activation during and after normothermic cardiopulmonary bypass: Heparin-bonded versus non heparin-bonded circuits,” ASAIO Journal, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 740–743, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. Koster, T. Fischer, M. Praus et al., “Hemostatic activation and inflammatory response during cardiopulmonary bypass: impact of heparin management,” Anesthesiology, vol. 97, no. 4, pp. 837–841, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. Olsson, A. Siegbahn, A. Henze et al., “Heparin-coated cardiopulmonary bypass circuits reduce circulating complement factors and interleukin-6 in paediatric heart surgery,” Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 33–40, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. T. Ozawa, K. Yoshihara, N. Koyama, Y. Watanabe, N. Shiono, and Y. Takanashi, “Clinical efficacy of heparin-bonded bypass circuits related to cytokine responses in children,” The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 69, no. 2, pp. 584–590, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. A. Parolari, F. Alamanni, T. Gherli et al., “‘High dose’ aprotinin and heparin-coated circuits: Clinical efficacy and inflammatory response,” Cardiovascular Surgery, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 117–127, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. H. Yamada, I. Kudoh, Y. Hirose, M. Toyoshima, H. Abe, and K. Kurahashi, “Heparin-coated circuits reduce the formation of TNFα during cardiopulmonary bypass,” Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, vol. 40, no. 3, pp. 311–317, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. O. Barkay, E. Niv, E. Santo, R. Bruck, A. Hallak, and F. M. Konikoff, “Low-dose heparin for the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis: a randomized placebo-controlled trial,” Surgical Endoscopy and Other Interventional Techniques, vol. 22, no. 9, pp. 1971–1976, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. R. C. Becker, K. W. Mahaffey, H. Yang et al., “Heparin-associated anti-Xa activity and platelet-derived prothrombotic and proinflammatory biomarkers in moderate to high-risk patients with acute coronary syndrome,” Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 146–153, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. S. D. Bowler, S. M. Smith, and P. S. Lavercombe, “Heparin inhibits the immediate response to antigen in the skin and lungs of allergic subjects,” American Review of Respiratory Disease, vol. 147, no. 1, pp. 160–163, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. P. Boyle, R. H. Smart, and J. K. Shirey, “Heparin in the treatment of chronic obstructive bronchopulmonary disease,” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 25–28, 1964. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. Y. Qian, H. Xie, R. Tian, K. Yu, and R. Wang, “Efficacy of low molecular weight heparin in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease receiving ventilatory support,” COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 171–176, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. Á. Chamorro, Á. Cervera, J. Castillo, A. Dávalos, J. J. Aponte, and A. M. Planas, “Unfractionated heparin is associated with a lower rise of serum vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in acute ischemic stroke patients,” Neuroscience Letters, vol. 328, no. 3, pp. 229–232, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. R. de Cock, L. A. Ficker, J. G. Dart, A. Garner, and P. Wright, “Topical heparin in the treatment of ligneous conjunctivitis,” Ophthalmology, vol. 102, no. 11, pp. 1654–1659, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. U. Derhaschnig, T. Pernerstorfer, M. Knechtelsdorfer, U. Hollenstein, S. Panzer, and B. Jilma, “Evaluation of antiinflammatory and antiadhesive effects of heparins in human endotoxemia,” Critical Care Medicine, vol. 31, no. 4, pp. 1108–1112, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. B. Dixon, M. J. Schultz, R. Smith, J. B. Fink, J. D. Santamaria, and D. J. Campbell, “Nebulized heparin is associated with fewer days of mechanical ventilation in critically ill patients: a randomized controlled trial,” Critical Care, vol. 14, no. 5, article R180, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. F. K. Keating, H. L. Dauerman, D. A. Whitaker, B. E. Sobel, and D. J. Schneider, “The effects of bivalirudin compared with those of unfractionated heparin plus eptifibatide on inflammation and thrombin generation and activity during coronary intervention,” Coronary Artery Disease, vol. 16, no. 6, pp. 401–405, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. M. Ledson, M. Gallagher, C. A. Hart, and M. Walshaw, “Nebulized heparin in Burkholderia cepacia colonized adult cystic fibrosis patients,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 36–38, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. D. J. Serisier, J. K. Shute, P. M. Hockey, B. Higgins, J. Conway, and M. P. Carroll, “Inhaled heparin in cystic fibrosis,” European Respiratory Journal, vol. 27, no. 2, pp. 354–358, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. O. K. Poyrazoglu, A. Dogukan, M. Yalniz, D. Seckin, and A. L. Gunal, “Acute effect of standard heparin versus low molecular weight heparin on oxidative stress and inflammation in hemodialysis patients,” Renal Failure, vol. 28, no. 8, pp. 723–727, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. S. Suzuki, T. Matsuo, H. Kobayashi et al., “Antithrombotic treatment (argatroban vs. heparin) in coronary angioplasty in angina pectoris: effects on inflammatory, hemostatic, and endothelium-derived parameters,” Thrombosis Research, vol. 98, no. 4, pp. 269–279, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. D. Trocme and H.-I. Li, “Effect of heparin-surface-modified intraocular lenses on postoperative inflammation after phacoemulsification: a randomized trial in a United States patient population,” Ophthalmology, vol. 107, no. 6, pp. 1031–1037, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. C. Vancheri, C. Mastruzzo, F. Armato et al., “Intranasal heparin reduces eosinophil recruitment after nasal allergen challenge in patients with allergic rhinitis,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 108, no. 5, pp. 703–708, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. A. Abdollahi, M.-T. Naini, H. Shams, and R. Zarei, “Effect of low-molecular-weight heparin on postoperative inflammation in phacomorphic glaucoma,” Archives of Iranian Medicine, vol. 5, no. 4, pp. 225–229, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. R. T. S. Lakshmi, T. Priyanka, J. Meenakshi, K. R. Mathangi, V. Jeyaraman, and M. Babu, “Low molecular weight heparin mediated regulation of nitric oxide synthase during burn wound healing,” Annals of Burns and Fire Disasters, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 24–29, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. G. Montalescot, C. Bal-dit-Sollier, D. Chibedi et al., “Comparison of effects on markers of blood cell activation of enoxaparin, dalteparin, and unfractionated heparin in patients with unstable angina pectoris or non-ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (the ARMADA study),” The American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 91, no. 8, pp. 925–930, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. S. Nasiripour, K. Gholami, S. Mousavi et al., “Comparison of the effects of enoxaparin and heparin on inflammatory biomarkers in patients with ST-segment elevated myocardial infarction: a prospective open label pilot clinical trial,” Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 13, no. 2, pp. 583–590, 2014. View at Google Scholar
  56. J. Oldgren, C. Fellenius, K. Boman et al., “Influence of prolonged dalteparin treatment on coagulation, fibrinolysis and inflammation in unstable coronary artery disease,” Journal of Internal Medicine, vol. 258, no. 5, pp. 420–427, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. T. K. Rudolph, V. Rudolph, A. Witte et al., “Liberation of vessel adherent myeloperoxidase by enoxaparin improves endothelial function,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 140, no. 1, pp. 42–47, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. D. L. Walters, M. J. Ray, P. Wood, E. J. Perrin, J. H. N. Bett, and C. N. Aroney, “High-dose tirofiban with enoxaparin and inflammatory markers in high-risk percutaneous intervention,” European Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 40, no. 2, pp. 139–147, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. S. W. Rathbun, C. E. Aston, and T. L. Whitsett, “A randomized trial of dalteparin compared with ibuprofen for the treatment of superficial thrombophlebitis,” Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 833–839, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. P. Titon, D. Auger, P. Grange et al., “Therapeutic management of superficial venous thrombosis with calcium nadroparin. Dosage testing and comparison with a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent,” Annales de Cardiologie et d Angéiologie, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 160–166, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  61. H. Uncu, “A comparison of low-molecular-weight heparin and combined therapy of low-molecular-weight heparin with an anti-inflammatory agent in the treatment of superficial vein thrombosis,” Phlebology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 56–60, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. J. A. Sjøland, R. S. Pedersen, J. Jespersen, and J. Gram, “Intraperitoneal heparin ameliorates the systemic inflammatory response in PD patients,” Nephron—Clinical Practice, vol. 100, no. 4, pp. c105–c110, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. N. L. Fine, C. Shim, and M. H. Williams Jr., “Objective evaluation of heparin in the treatment of asthma,” American Review of Respiratory Disease, vol. 98, no. 5, pp. 886–887, 1968. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. Z. Diamant, M. C. Timmers, H. van der Veen, C. P. Page, F. J. van der Meer, and P. J. Sterk, “Effect of inhaled heparin on allergen-induced early and late asthmatic responses in patients with atopic asthma,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 153, no. 6 I, pp. 1790–1795, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. C. M. E. Tranfa, A. Vatrella, R. Parrella, G. Pelaia, F. Bariffi, and S. A. Marsico, “Effect of inhaled heparin on water-induced bronchoconstriction in allergic asthmatics,” European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 5–9, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. I. Stelmach, J. Jerzyńska, A. Brzozowska, and P. Kuna, “The effect of inhaled heparin on postleukotriene bronchoconstriction in children with asthma,” Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski, vol. 12, no. 68, pp. 95–98, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. R. Polosa, S. Magrì, C. Vancheri et al., “Time course of changes in adenosine 5′-monophosphate airway responsiveness with inhaled heparin in allergic asthma,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 338–342, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. J. Butler, G. M. Rocker, and S. Westaby, “Inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass,” The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 552–559, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. J. M. Redmond, A. M. Gillinov, R. S. Stuart et al., “Heparin-coated bypass circuits reduce pulmonary injury,” The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 474–479, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. S. Svenmarker, E. Sandström, T. Karlsson et al., “Clinical effects of the heparin coated surface in cardiopulmonary bypass,” European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 957–964, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. Y. J. Gu, W. van Oeveren, C. Akkerman, P. W. Boonstra, R. J. Huyzen, and C. R. H. Wildevuur, “Heparin-coated circuits reduce the inflammatory response to cardiopulmonary bypass,” The Annals of Thoracic Surgery, vol. 55, no. 4, pp. 917–922, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. D. Paparella, O. O. Al Radi, Q. H. Meng, T. Venner, K. Teoh, and E. Young, “The effects of high-dose heparin on inflammatory and coagulation parameters following cardiopulmonary bypass,” Blood Coagulation and Fibrinolysis, vol. 16, no. 5, pp. 323–328, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. S. Danese, A. Papa, S. Saibeni, A. Repici, A. Malesci, and M. Vecchi, “Inflammation and coagulation in inflammatory bowel disease: the clot thickens,” The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 102, no. 1, pp. 174–186, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. S. Bloom, S. Kiilerich, M. R. Lassen et al., “Low molecular weight heparin (tinzaparin) vs. placebo in the treatment of mild to moderately active ulcerative colitis,” Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 871–878, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. P. Libby, “Coronary artery injury and the biology of atherosclerosis: inflammation, thrombosis, and stabilization,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 86, no. 8, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. N. T. Mulvihill and J. B. Foley, “Inflammation in acute coronary syndromes,” Heart, vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 201–204, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. N. A. Jameson, W. V. Good, and C. S. Hoyt, “Inflammation after cataract surgery in children,” Ophthalmic Surgery, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 99–102, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. R. M. Sinskey, P. A. Amin, and R. Lingua, “Cataract extraction and intraocular lens implantation in an infant with a monocular congenital cataract,” Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 647–651, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. A. van Ophoven, A. Heinecke, and L. Hertle, “Safety and efficacy of concurrent application of oral pentosan polysulfate and subcutaneous low-dose heparin for patients with interstitial cystitis,” Urology, vol. 66, no. 4, pp. 707–711, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus