Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Volume 2016, Article ID 2175896, 11 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/2175896
Research Article

MDMA Impairs Response to Water Intake in Healthy Volunteers

1Addiction and Pharmacology Research Laboratory, Friends Research Institute, Baltimore, MD 21201, USA
2Division of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA
3Chemistry and Drug Metabolism, IRP, National Institute on Drug Abuse, NIH, Baltimore, MD 21224, USA

Received 2 December 2015; Revised 17 April 2016; Accepted 11 May 2016

Academic Editor: Raymond M. Quock

Copyright © 2016 Matthew J. Baggott et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. Woodrow, P. Harnden, and J. H. Turney, “Acute renal failure due to accelerated hypertension following ingestion of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (‘ecstasy’),” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 399–400, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. I. Ajaelo, K. Koenig, and E. Snoey, “Severe hyponatremia and inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion following ecstasy use,” Academic Emergency Medicine, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 839–840, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. C. Satchell and M. Connaughton, “Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion and extreme rises in serum creatinine kinase following MDMA ingestion,” British Journal of Hospital Medicine, vol. 51, no. 9, p. 495, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. B. Holmes, A. K. Banerjee, and W. D. Alexander, “Hyponatraemia and seizures after ecstasy use,” Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 75, no. 879, pp. 32–33, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. D. L. Maxwell, M. I. Polkey, and J. A. Henry, “Hyponatraemia and catatonic stupor after taking ‘ecstasy’,” British Medical Journal, vol. 307, no. 6916, p. 1399, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. M. Matthai, D. C. Davidson, J. A. Sills, and D. Alexandrou, “Cerebral oedema after ingestion of MDMA (“ecstasy”) and unrestricted intake of water,” British Medical Journal, vol. 312, no. 7042, p. 1359, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  7. M. J. A. Parr, H. M. Low, and P. Botterill, “Hyponatraemia and death after ‘ecstasy’ ingestion,” Medical Journal of Australia, vol. 166, no. 3, pp. 136–137, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. X. Nuvials, J. R. Masclans, R. Peracaula, and F. J. De Latorre, “Hyponatraemic coma after ecstasy ingestion,” Intensive Care Medicine, vol. 23, no. 4, p. 480, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. I. D. Watson, M. Serlin, P. Moncur, and F. Tames, “Acute hyponatraemia,” Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 73, no. 861, pp. 443–444, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  10. R. Holden and M. A. Jackson, “Near-fatal hyponatraemic coma due to vasopressin over-secretion after ‘ecstasy’ (3,4-MDMA),” The Lancet, vol. 347, no. 9007, p. 1052, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. Y.-M. Sue, Y.-L. Lee, and J.-J. Huang, “Acute hyponatremia, seizure, and rhabdomyolysis after ecstasy use,” Journal of Toxicology—Clinical Toxicology, vol. 40, no. 7, pp. 931–932, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. D. Z. I. Cherney, M. R. Davids, and M. L. Halperin, “Acute hyponatraemia and ‘ecstasy’: insights from a quantitative and integrative analysis,” Quarterly Journal of Medicine, vol. 95, no. 7, pp. 475–483, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. O'Connor, A. Cluroe, R. Couch, L. Galler, J. Lawrence, and B. Synek, “Death from hyponatraemia-induced cerebral oedema associated with MDMA (‘Ecstasy’) use,” New Zealand Medical Journal, vol. 112, no. 1091, pp. 255–256, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. C. Magee, H. Staunton, W. Tormey, and J. J. Walshe, “Hyponatraemia, seizures and stupor associated with ecstasy ingestion in a female,” Irish Medical Journal, vol. 91, no. 5, p. 178, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. S. A. Box, L. F. Prescott, and S. Freestone, “Hyponatraemia at a rave,” Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 73, no. 855, pp. 53–54, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. B. Kessel, “Hyponatraemia after ingestion of ecstasy,” British Medical Journal, vol. 308, no. 6925, article 414, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  17. M. N. Budisavljevic, L. Stewart, S. A. Sahn, and D. W. Ploth, “Hyponatremia associated with 3,4-methylenedioxymethylamphetamine (‘ecstasy’) abuse,” American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol. 326, no. 2, pp. 89–93, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. Kalantar-Zadeh, M. K. Nguyen, R. Chang, and I. Kurtz, “Fatal hyponatremia in a young woman after ecstasy ingestion,” Nature Clinical Practice Nephrology, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 283–288, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. Brvar, G. Kozelj, J. Osredkar, M. Mozina, M. Gricar, and M. Bunc, “Polydipsia as another mechanism of hyponatremia after ‘ecstasy’ (3,4 methyldioxymethamphetamine) ingestion,” European Journal of Emergency Medicine, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 302–304, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. K. Hartung, E. Schofield, A. I. Short, M. J. A. Parr, and J. A. Henry, “Hyponatraemic states following 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy’) ingestion,” QJM—Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians, vol. 95, no. 7, pp. 431–437, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. A. Henry, J. K. Fallon, A. T. Kicman, A. J. Hutt, D. A. Cowan, and M. Forsling, “Low-dose MDMA (‘ecstasy’) induces vasopressin secretion,” The Lancet, vol. 351, no. 9118, p. 1784, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. Forsling, J. K. Fallon, A. T. Kicman, A. J. Hutt, D. A. Cowan, and J. A. Henry, “Arginine vasopressin release in response to the administration of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (‘ecstasy’): is metabolism a contributory factor?” Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, vol. 53, no. 10, pp. 1357–1363, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. J. K. Fallon, D. Shah, A. T. Kicman et al., “Action of MDMA (Ecstasy) and its metabolites on arginine vasopressin release,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 965, pp. 399–409, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. L. Forsling, J. K. Fallon, D. Shah et al., “The effect of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy’) and its metabolites on neurohypophysial hormone release from the isolated rat hypothalamus,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 135, no. 3, pp. 649–656, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. G. J. H. Dumont, C. Kramers, F. C. Sweep et al., “Ethanol co-administration moderates 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine effects on human physiology,” Journal of Psychopharmacology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 165–174, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. K. J. Aitchison, E. M. Tsapakis, P. Huezo-Diaz, R. W. Kerwin, M. L. Forsling, and K. Wolff, “Ecstasy (MDMA)-induced hyponatraemia is associated with genetic variants in CYP2D6 and COMT,” Journal of Psychopharmacology, vol. 26, no. 3, pp. 408–418, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. M. Fabian, M. L. Forsling, J. J. Jones, and J. S. Pryor, “The clearance and antidiuretic potency of neurohypophysial hormones in man, and their plasma binding and stability,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 204, no. 3, pp. 653–668, 1969. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. G. Baumann and J. F. Dingman, “Distribution, blood transport, and degradation of antidiuretic hormone in man,” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol. 57, no. 5, pp. 1109–1116, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. M. Kluge, S. Riedl, B. Erhart-Hofmann, J. Hartmann, and F. Waldhauser, “Improved extraction procedure and RIA for determination of arginine8-vasopressin in plasma: role of premeasurement sample treatment and reference values in children,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 98–103, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. G. Szinnai, N. G. Morgenthaler, K. Berneis et al., “Changes in plasma copeptin, the C-terminal portion of arginine vasopressin during water deprivation and excess in healthy subjects,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol. 92, no. 10, pp. 3973–3978, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. L. D. Simmler, C. M. Hysek, and M. E. Liechti, “Sex differences in the effects of MDMA (ecstasy) on plasma copeptin in healthy subjects,” The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol. 96, no. 9, pp. 2844–2850, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. K. Wolff, E. M. Tsapakis, A. R. Winstock et al., “Vasopressin and oxytocin secretion in response to the consumption of ecstasy in a clubbing population,” Journal of Psychopharmacology, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 400–410, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. T. Van Amelsvoort, R. Bakshi, C. B. Devaux, and S. Schwabe, “Hyponatremia associated with carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine therapy: a review,” Epilepsia, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 181–188, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. C. Sachdeo, A. Wasserstein, P. J. Mesenbrink, and J. D'Souza, “Effects of oxcarbazepine on sodium concentration and water handling,” Annals of Neurology, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 613–620, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. Z. P. Moyses, F. K. Nakandakari, and A. J. Magaldi, “Fluoxetine effect on kidney water reabsorption,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 1173–1178, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. E. D. Lehmann, C. H. Thom, and D. N. Croft, “Delayed severe rhabdomyolysis after taking ‘ecstasy’,” Postgraduate Medical Journal, vol. 71, no. 833, pp. 186–187, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. J. C. Ayus and A. I. Arieff, “Brain damage and postoperative hyponatremia: the role of gender,” Neurology, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 323–328, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. O. Spigset and K. Hedenmalm, “Hyponatremia in relation to treatment with antidepressants: a survey of reports in the World Health Organization data base for spontaneous reporting of adverse drug reactions,” Pharmacotherapy, vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 348–352, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. C. S. D. Almond, A. Y. Shin, E. B. Fortescue et al., “Hyponatremia among runners in the Boston marathon,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 352, no. 15, pp. 1550–1622, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. J. C. Ayus, S. G. Achinger, and A. Arieff, “Brain cell volume regulation in hyponatremia: role of sex, age, vasopressin, and hypoxia,” American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology, vol. 295, no. 3, pp. F619–F624, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. Q. D. Walker, C. N. Williams, R. P. Jotwani, S. T. Waller, R. Francis, and C. M. Kuhn, “Sex differences in the neurochemical and functional effects of MDMA in Sprague-Dawley rats,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 189, no. 4, pp. 435–445, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. J. Fonsart, M.-C. Menet, M. Debray et al., “Sprague-Dawley rats display sex-linked differences in the pharmacokinetics of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) and its metabolite 3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine (MDA),” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 241, no. 3, pp. 339–347, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. J. Fonsart, M.-C. Menet, X. Declèves et al., “Sprague-Dawley rats display metabolism-mediated sex differences in the acute toxicity of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy),” Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, vol. 230, no. 1, pp. 117–125, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. T. Palenicek, M. Votava, V. Bubenikova, and J. Horacek, “Increased sensitivity to the acute effects of MDMA (‘ecstasy’) in female rats,” Physiology and Behavior, vol. 86, no. 4, pp. 546–553, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. E. A. Kolbrich, R. S. Goodwin, D. A. Gorelick, R. J. Hayes, E. A. Stein, and M. A. Huestis, “Plasma pharmacokinetics of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine after controlled oral administration to young adults,” Therapeutic Drug Monitoring, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 320–332, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. J. Lester, M. Baggott, S. Welm et al., “Cardiovascular effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial,” Annals of Internal Medicine, vol. 133, no. 12, pp. 969–973, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. M. E. Tancer and C.-E. Johanson, “The subjective effects of MDMA and mCPP in moderate MDMA users,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 97–101, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. Camí, M. Farré, M. Mas et al., “Human pharmacology of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (‘ecstasy’): psychomotor performance and subjective effects,” Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 455–466, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. F. X. Vollenweider, A. Gamma, M. Liechti, and T. Huber, “Psychological and cardiovascular effects and short-term sequelae of MDMA (‘ecstasy’) in MDMA-naive healthy volunteers,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 241–251, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. D. S. Harris, M. Baggott, J. H. Mendelson, J. E. Mendelson, and R. T. Jones, “Subjective and hormonal effects of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) in humans,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 162, no. 4, pp. 396–405, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. K. B. Scheidweiler and M. A. Huestis, “A validated gas chromatographic-electron impact ionization mass spectrometric method for methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methamphetamine and metabolites in oral fluid,” Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences, vol. 835, no. 1-2, pp. 90–99, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. R Core Team, R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing, R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria, 2014.
  53. D. T. A. Eisenberg, J. MacKillop, M. Modi et al., “Examining impulsivity as an endophenotype using a behavioral approach: a DRD2 TaqI A and DRD4 48-bp VNTR association study,” Behavioral and Brain Functions, vol. 3, article 2, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. G. A. Campbell and M. H. Rosner, “The agony of ecstasy: MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine) and the kidney,” Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 3, no. 6, pp. 1852–1860, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. Rosenson, C. Smollin, K. A. Sporer, P. Blanc, and K. R. Olson, “Patterns of ecstasy-associated hyponatremia in california,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 49, no. 2, pp. 164–171. e1, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. G. J. H. Dumont, R. C. Schoemaker, D. J. Touw et al., “Acute psychomotor effects of MDMA and ethanol (co-) administration over time in healthy volunteers,” Journal of Psychopharmacology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 155–164, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. Y.-H. H. Lien and J. I. Shapiro, “Hyponatremia: clinical diagnosis and management,” The American Journal of Medicine, vol. 120, no. 8, pp. 653–658, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. J. A. Clayton, I. R. Le Jeune, and I. P. Hall, “Severe hyponatraemia in medical in-patients: aetiology, assessment and outcome,” Quarterly Journal of Medicine, vol. 99, no. 8, pp. 505–511, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. R. Zerbe, L. Stropes, and G. Robertson, “Vasopressin function in the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuresis,” Annual Review of Medicine, vol. 31, pp. 315–327, 1980. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. J. A. Henry and J. G. Rella, “Medical risks associated with MDMA use,” in Ecstasy: The Complete Guide. A Comprehensive Look at the Risks and Benefits of MDMA, J. Holland, Ed., pp. 71–86, Inner Traditions, Rochester, Vt, USA, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  61. G. Liamis, H. Milionis, and M. Elisaf, “A review of drug-induced hyponatremia,” American Journal of Kidney Diseases, vol. 52, no. 1, pp. 144–153, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. C. Y. Y. Cheng, J. Y. S. Chu, and B. K. C. Chow, “Vasopressin-independent mechanisms in controlling water homeostasis,” Journal of Molecular Endocrinology, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 81–92, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. M. L. Moritz, K. Kalantar-Zadeh, and J. C. Ayus, “Ecstacy-associated hyponatremia: why are women at risk?” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 2206–2209, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. T. Hew-Butler, J. C. Ayus, C. Kipps et al., “Statement of the second international exercise-associated hyponatremia consensus development conference, New Zealand, 2007,” Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 111–121, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. W. Peate, J. Ayus, and A. Arieff, “Hyponatremia in marathon runners,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 353, pp. 427–428, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  66. G. D. van Dijken, R. E. Blom, R. J. Hené, and W. H. Boer, “High incidence of mild hyponatraemia in females using ecstasy at a rave party,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 28, no. 9, pp. 2277–2283, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus