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Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Volume 2017, Article ID 4320408, 19 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4320408
Review Article

Neuroprotection in Glaucoma: Old and New Promising Treatments

1Sooft Italia S.p.A., Via Salvatore Quasimodo 136, Rome, Italy
2Bioos Italia S.r.l., Viale Andrea Doria 21, Catania, Italy
3Ophthalmology Clinic of the Sant’Andrea Hospital of Rome, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
4Department of Sense Organs, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy
5Department of Cardiovascular, Respiratory, Nephrology, Anesthesiology and Geriatric Sciences, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy

Correspondence should be addressed to Dario Rusciano; ti.tfoos@onaicsur.oirad

Received 21 April 2017; Revised 2 September 2017; Accepted 13 September 2017; Published 17 October 2017

Academic Editor: Antonio Ferrer-Montiel

Copyright © 2017 Dario Rusciano et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Glaucoma is a major global cause of blindness, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for the neurodegenerative damage are not clear. Undoubtedly, the high intraocular pressure (IOP) and the secondary ischemic and mechanical damage of the optic nerve have a crucial role in retinal ganglion cell (RGC) death. Several studies specifically analyzed the events that lead to nerve fiber layer thinning, showing the importance of both intra- and extracellular factors. In parallel, many neuroprotective substances have been tested for their efficacy and safety in hindering the negative effects that lead to RGC death. New formulations of these compounds, also suitable for chronic oral administration, are likely to be used in clinical practice in the future along with conventional therapies, in order to control the progression of the visual impairment due to primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). This review illustrates some of these old and new promising agents for the adjuvant treatment of POAG, with particular emphasis on forskolin and melatonin.