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Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Volume 2019, Article ID 5419854, 8 pages
Research Article

Antibacterial Activity of Coumarins and Carbazole Alkaloid from Roots of Clausena anisata

Department of Applied Chemistry, Adama Science and Technology University, P.O.Box 1888, Adama, Ethiopia

Correspondence should be addressed to Milkyas Endale; moc.oohay@eladnesayklim

Received 23 August 2018; Accepted 3 January 2019; Published 3 February 2019

Academic Editor: Masahiro Oike

Copyright © 2019 Dandena Tamene and Milkyas Endale. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Clausena anisata is one of the medicinal plants used traditionally for treatment of parasitic infections, irritation (boils, ringworm, and eczema), flatworm infestations, influenza, abdominal cramps, and constipation. Phytochemical screening test of dichloromethane/methanol (1 : 1) roots extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, phytosterols, coumarins, phenols, alkaloids, tannins, terpenoids, and free reducing sugars and the absence of saponins. Silica gel column chromatographic separation of the dichloromethane/methanol (1 : 1) extract afforded a carbazole alkaloid derivative of heptazoline (1) and three coumarins (24), including the known coumarins imperatorin (3) and chalepin (4). Structures of the compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic techniques (IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, and DEPT-135). Antibacterial activity of the crude extracts and isolated compounds was screened using agar diffusion method against strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Bacillus substilis. The results of antibacterial test revealed derivative of heptaphylline (1) and imperatorin (3) exhibited comparable antibacterial activity against S. aureus and B. substilis (14 and 13 mm zone of inhibition, respectively) to that of ciprofloxacin (15 mm zone of inhibition) at a concentration of 20 µg/mL. Chalepin (4) revealed more antibacterial activity against B. substilis (16 mm zone of inhibition) compared to ciprofloxacin (15 mm).