Table of Contents
Advances in Psychiatry
Volume 2014, Article ID 196281, 20 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/196281
Review Article

Aggression in Psychoses

New York University School of Medicine, P.O. Box 160663, Big Sky, MT 59716, USA

Received 25 November 2013; Revised 16 December 2013; Accepted 18 December 2013; Published 12 February 2014

Academic Editor: Jane E. Boydell

Copyright © 2014 Jan Volavka. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Volavka, Neurobiology of Violence, American Psychiatric Publishing, Washington, DC, USA, 2nd edition, 2002.
  2. S. C. Yudofsky, J. M. Silver, W. Jackson, J. Endicott, and D. Williams, “The overt aggression scale for the objective rating of verbal and physical aggression,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 143, no. 1, pp. 35–39, 1986. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. S. R. Kay, F. Wolkenfeld, and L. M. Murrill, “Profiles of aggression among psychiatric patients—I. Nature and prevalence,” The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, vol. 176, no. 9, pp. 539–546, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. W. Knoedler, “The modified overt aggression scale,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 146, no. 8, pp. 1081–1082, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. H. J. Steadman, E. P. Mulvey, J. Monahan et al., “Violence by people discharged from acute psychiatric inpatient facilities and by others in the same neighborhoods,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 55, no. 5, pp. 393–401, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. W. Swanson, M. S. Swartz, and E. B. Elbogen, “Effectiveness of atypical antipsychotic medications in reducing violent behavior among persons with schizophrenia in community-based treatment,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 30, no. 1, pp. 3–20, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. J. W. Swanson, M. S. Swartz, E. B. Elbogen, and R. A. van Dorn, “Reducing violence risk in persons with schizophrenia: olanzapine versus risperidone,” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 65, no. 12, pp. 1666–1673, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. J. W. Swanson, M. S. Swartz, R. A. van Dorn et al., “A national study of violent behavior in persons with schizophrenia,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 63, no. 5, pp. 490–499, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. R. Kay, L. A. Opler, and J.-P. Lindenmayer, “The positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS): rationale and standardisation,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 155, no. 7, pp. 59–65, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. W. Guy, ECDEU Assessment Manual for Psychopharmacology, National Institute of Mental Health, Rockville, Md, USA, 1986.
  11. J.-P. Lindenmayer, H. Liu-Seifert, P. M. Kulkarni et al., “Medication nonadherence and treatment outcome in patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder with suboptimal prior response,” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 70, no. 7, pp. 990–996, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. D. Hare, The Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), Multi-Health Systems, Toronto, Canada, 2003.
  13. A. Tengström, M. Grann, N. Långström, and G. Kullgren, “Psychopathy (PCL-R) as a predictor of violent recidivism among criminal offenders with schizophrenia,” Law and Human Behavior, vol. 24, no. 1, pp. 45–58, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. D. Hart, R. D. Hare, and A. E. Forth, “Psychopathy as a risk marker for violence: development and validation of a screening version of the revised psychopathy checklist,” in Violence and Mental Disorder: Developments in Risk Assessment, J. Monahan and H. J. Steadman, Eds., pp. 81–98, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill, USA, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  15. American Psychiatric Association, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, American Psychiatric Association, Arlington, Va, USA, 5th edition, 2013.
  16. D. A. Regier, J. H. Boyd, J. D. Burke Jr. et al., “One-month prevalence of mental disorders in the United States, based on five epidemiologic catchment area sites,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 45, no. 11, pp. 977–986, 1988. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. D. A. Regier, J. K. Myers, M. Kramer et al., “The NIMH epidemiologic catchment area program. Historical context, major objectives, and study population characteristics,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 41, pp. 934–941, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. J. W. Swanson, C. E. Holzer III, V. K. Ganju, and R. T. Jono, “Violence and psychiatric disorder in the community: evidence from the epidemiologic catchment area surveys,” Hospital and Community Psychiatry, vol. 41, no. 7, pp. 761–770, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. J. W. Swanson, “Mental disorder, substance abuse, and community violence: an epidemiological approach,” in Violence and Mental Disorder: Developments in Risk Assessment, J. Monahan and H. J. Steadman, Eds., pp. 101–136, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill, USA, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  20. S. Fazel, N. Langström, A. Hjern, M. Grann, and P. Lichtenstein, “Schizophrenia, substance abuse, and violent crime,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 301, no. 19, pp. 2016–2023, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. S. Fazel, G. Gulati, L. Linsell, J. R. Geddes, and M. Grann, “Schizophrenia and violence: systematic review and meta-analysis,” PLoS Medicine, vol. 6, no. 8, Article ID e1000120, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. E. B. Elbogen and S. C. Johnson, “The intricate link between violence and mental disorder: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 66, no. 2, pp. 152–161, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. R. van Dorn, J. Volavka, and N. Johnson, “Mental disorder and violence: is there a relationship beyond substance use?” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 487–503, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. P. Czobor, J. Volavka, H. J. Steadman et al., “Violence in the mentally ill: questions remain,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 56, no. 2, pp. 193–194, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. A. Lieberman, S. T. Stroup, J. P. McEvoy et al., “Effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs in patients with chronic schizophrenia,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 353, no. 12, pp. 1209–1223, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. Eronen, P. Hakola, and J. Tiihonen, “Mental disorders and homicidal behavior in Finland,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 497–501, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. H. Schanda, G. Knecht, D. Schreinze, T. Stompe, G. Ortwein-Swoboda, and T. Waldhoer, “Homicide and major mental disorders: a 25-year study,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 110, no. 2, pp. 98–107, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. Fazel and M. Grann, “Psychiatric morbidity among homicide offenders: a Swedish population study,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 161, no. 11, pp. 2129–2131, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. O. Nielssen and M. Large, “Rates of homicide during the first episode of psychosis and after treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 36, no. 4, pp. 702–712, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. M. J. Hoptman, K. F. Yates, M. B. Patalinjug, R. C. Wack, and A. Convit, “Clinical prediction of assaultive behavior among male psychiatric patients at a maximum-security forensic facility,” Psychiatric Services, vol. 50, no. 11, pp. 1461–1466, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. R. B. Flannery, A. Staffieri, S. Hildum, and A. P. Walker, “The violence triad and common single precipitants to psychiatric patient assaults on staff: 16-Year analysis of the assaulted staff action program,” Psychiatric Quarterly, vol. 82, no. 2, pp. 85–93, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. R. D. Hare and L. M. McPherson, “Violent and aggressive behavior by criminal psychopaths,” International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 35–50, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. A.-M. R. Leistico, R. T. Salekin, J. DeCoster, and R. Rogers, “A large-scale meta-analysis relating the hare measures of psychopathy to antisocial conduct,” Law and Human Behavior, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 28–45, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. G. D. Walters, R. A. Knight, M. Grann, and K.-P. Dahle, “Incremental validity of the psychopathy checklist facet scores: predicting release outcome in six samples,” Journal of Abnormal Psychology, vol. 117, no. 2, pp. 396–405, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. K. A. Nolan, J. Volavka, P. Mohr, and P. Czobor, “Psychopathy and violent behavior among patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder,” Psychiatric Services, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 787–792, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. T. Laajasalo, S. Salenius, N. Lindberg, E. Repo-Tiihonen, and H. Häkkänen-Nyholm, “Psychopathic traits in Finnish homicide offenders with schizophrenia,” International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, vol. 34, no. 5, pp. 324–330, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. K. McGregor, D. Castle, and M. Dolan, “Schizophrenia spectrum disorders, substance misuse, and the four-facet model of psychopathy: the relationship to violence,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 136, no. 1–3, pp. 116–121, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. K. A. Nolan, P. Czobor, B. B. Roy et al., “Characteristics of assaultive behavior among psychiatric inpatients,” Psychiatric Services, vol. 54, no. 7, pp. 1012–1016, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. R. S. Fullam and M. C. Dolan, “Executive function and in-patient violence in forensic patients with schizophrenia,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 193, no. 3, pp. 247–253, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. P. Moran and S. Hodgins, “The correlates of comorbid antisocial personality disorder in schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 791–802, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. B. Schiffer, N. Leygraf, B. W. Muller et al., “Structural brain alterations associated with schizophrenia preceded by conduct disorder: a common and distinct subtype of schizophrenia?” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 1115–1128, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. J. W. Coid, S. Ullrich, C. Kallis et al., “The relationship between delusions and violence: findings from the east London first episode psychosis study,” Journal of the American Medical Association Psychiatry, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 465–471, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. K. Witt, R. van Dorn, and S. Fazel, “Risk factors for violence in psychosis: systematic review and meta-regression analysis of 110 studies,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 2, Article ID e55942, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. E. F. Coccaro, C. S. Bergeman, R. J. Kavoussi, and A. D. Seroczynski, “Heritability of aggression and irritability: a twin study of the Buss-Durkee aggression scales in adult male subjects,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 41, no. 3, pp. 273–284, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. S. Comai, M. Tau, and G. Gobbi, “The psychopharmacology of aggressive behavior: a translational approach—part 1: neurobiology,” Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol. 32, no. 1, pp. 83–94, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. E. R. Allan, M. Alpert, C. E. Sison, L. Citrome, G. Laury, and I. Berman, “Adjunctive nadolol in the treatment of acutely aggressive schizophrenic patients,” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 57, no. 10, pp. 455–459, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. J. M. Silver, S. C. Yudofsky, J. A. Slater et al., “Propranolol treatment of chronically hospitalized aggressive patients,” The Journal of Neuropsychiatry & Clinical Neurosciences, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 328–335, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. J. A. Gogos, M. Morgan, V. Luine et al., “Catechol-O-methyltransferase-deficient mice exhibit sexually dimorphic changes in catecholamine levels and behavior,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 95, no. 17, pp. 9991–9996, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. C. Fernandes, J. L. Paya-Cano, F. Sluyter, U. D'Souza, R. Plomin, and L. C. Schalkwyk, “Hippocampal gene expression profiling across eight mouse inbred strains: towards understanding the molecular basis for behaviour,” European Journal of Neuroscience, vol. 19, no. 9, pp. 2576–2582, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. H. M. Lachman, K. A. Nolan, P. Mohr, T. Saito, and J. Volavka, “Association between catechol O-methyltransferase genotype and violence in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 155, no. 6, pp. 835–837, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. R. D. Strous, N. Bark, S. S. Parsia, J. Volavka, and H. M. Lachman, “Analysis of a functional catechol-O-methyltransferase gene polymorphism in schizophrenia: evidence for association with aggressive and antisocial behavior,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 69, no. 2-3, pp. 71–77, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. P. Singh, J. Volavka, P. Czobor, and R. A. van Dorn, “A meta-analysis of the Val158Met COMT polymorphism and violent behavior in schizophrenia,” PLoS ONE, vol. 7, no. 8, Article ID e43423, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. S. G. Bhakta, J. P. Zhang, and A. K. Malhotra, “The COMT Met158 allele and violence in schizophrenia: a meta-analysis,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 140, no. 1–3, pp. 192–197, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  54. C. S. Widom, “The cycle of violence,” Science, vol. 244, no. 4901, pp. 160–166, 1989. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. A. Caspi, J. McCray, T. E. Moffitt et al., “Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children,” Science, vol. 297, no. 5582, pp. 851–854, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. C. S. Widom and L. M. Brzustowicz, “MAOA and the “cycle of violence:” childhood abuse and neglect, MAOA genotype, and risk for violent and antisocial behavior,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 60, no. 7, pp. 684–689, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. T. C. Silva, P. Larm, F. Vitaro, R. E. Tremblay, and S. Hodgins, “The association between maltreatment in childhood and criminal convictions to age 24: a prospective study of a community sample of males from disadvantaged neighbourhoods,” European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, vol. 21, no. 7, pp. 403–413, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. N. J. Kolla, C. Malcolm, S. Attard, T. Arenovich, N. Blackwood, and S. Hodgins, “Childhood maltreatment and aggressive behaviour in violent offenders with psychopathy,” Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 58, no. 8, pp. 487–494, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  59. K. L. McCabe, E. A. Maloney, H. J. Stain, C. M. Loughland, and V. J. Carr, “Relationship between childhood adversity and clinical and cognitive features in schizophrenia,” Journal of Psychiatric Research, vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 600–607, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. N. Alia-Klein, T. M. O'Rourke, R. Z. Goldstein, and D. Malaspina, “Insight into illness and adherence to psychotropic medications are separately associated with violence severity in a forensic sample,” Aggressive Behavior, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 86–96, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. Bennouna-Greene, V. Bennouna-Greene, F. Berna, and L. Defranoux, “History of abuse and neglect in patients with schizophrenia who have a history of violence,” Child Abuse & Neglect, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 329–332, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. S. Hodgins, J. Tiihonen, and D. Ross, “The consequences of conduct disorder for males who develop schizophrenia: associations with criminality, aggressive behavior, substance use, and psychiatric services,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 78, no. 2-3, pp. 323–335, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. S. Hodgins, “Parental violent crime, previous violence and substance abuse predict future violence in people with schizophrenia,” Evidence-Based Mental Health, vol. 12, no. 4, article 127, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. J. W. Swanson, R. A. van Dorn, M. S. Swartz, A. Smith, E. B. Elbogen, and J. Monahan, “Alternative pathways to violence in persons with schizophrenia: the role of childhood antisocial behavior problems,” Law and Human Behavior, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 228–240, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. C. Wallace, P. E. Mullen, and P. Burgess, “Criminal offending in schizophrenia over a 25-year period marked by deinstitutionalization and increasing prevalence of comorbid substance use disorders,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 161, no. 4, pp. 716–727, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. S. Hodgins, M. Calem, R. Shimel et al., “Criminal offending and distinguishing features of offenders among persons experiencing a first episode of psychosis,” Early Intervention in Psychiatry, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 15–23, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. J. A. Lam and R. Rosenheck, “The effect of victimization on clinical outcomes of homeless persons with serious mental illness,” Psychiatric Services, vol. 49, no. 5, pp. 678–683, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. V. A. Hiday, J. W. Swanson, M. S. Swartz, R. Borum, and H. R. Wagner, “Victimization: a link between mental illness and violence?” International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 559–572, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. E. Silver, “Mental disorder and violent victimization: the mediating role of involvement in conflicted social relationships,” Criminology, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 191–212, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. T. B. Short, S. Thomas, S. Luebbers, P. Mullen, and J. R. Ogloff, “A case-linkage study of crime victimisation in schizophrenia-spectrum disorders over a period of deinstitutionalisation,” BMC Psychiatry, vol. 13, article 66, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  71. M. L. Crowner, G. Peric, F. Stepcic, and S. Lee, “Assailant and victim behaviors immediately preceding inpatient assault,” Psychiatric Quarterly, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 243–256, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. G. T. Harris and G. W. Varney, “A ten-year study of assaults and assaulters on a maximum security psychiatric unit,” Journal of Interpersonal Violence, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 173–191, 1986. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  73. J. A. Yesavage and V. Zarcone, “History of drug abuse and dangerous behavior in inpatient schizophrenics,” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 44, no. 7, pp. 259–261, 1983. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. D. A. Regier, M. E. Farmer, D. S. Rae et al., “Comorbidity of mental disorders with alcohol and other drug abuse. Results from the epidemiologic catchment area (ECA) study,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 264, no. 19, pp. 2511–2518, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. J. Junginger, “Command hallucinations and the prediction of dangerousness,” Psychiatric Services, vol. 46, no. 9, pp. 911–914, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. J. Junginger, L. McGuire, D. E. McNiel, J. P. Eisner, and R. L. Binder, “The paradox of command hallucinations,” Psychiatric Services, vol. 52, no. 3, article 385, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. L. J. Warren, P. E. Mullen, S. D. M. Thomas, J. R. P. Ogloff, and P. M. Burgess, “Threats to kill: a follow-up study,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 599–605, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. B. G. Link and A. Stueve, “Psychotic symptoms and the violent/illegal behavior of mental patients compared to community controls,” in Violence and Mental Disorder: Developments in Risk Assessment, J. Monahan and H. J. Steadman, Eds., pp. 137–159, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago, Ill, USA, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  79. B. G. Link, A. Stueve, and J. Phelan, “Psychotic symptoms and violent behaviors: probing the components of “threat/control-override” symptoms,” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, vol. 33, no. 1, supplement, pp. S55–S60, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. P. S. Appelbaum, P. C. Robbins, and J. Monahan, “Violence and delusions: data from the MacArthur violence risk assessment study,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 157, no. 4, pp. 566–572, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. S. Ullrich, R. Keers, and J. W. Coid, “Delusions, anger, and serious violence: new findings from the MacArthur violence risk assessment study,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  82. C. Arango, A. C. Barba, T. González-Salvador, and A. C. Ordóñez, “Violence in inpatients with schizophrenia: a prospective study,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 493–503, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. P. F. Buckley, D. R. Hrouda, L. Friedman, S. G. Noffsinger, P. J. Resnick, and K. Camlin-Shingler, “Insight and its relationship to violent behavior in patients with schizophrenia,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 161, no. 9, pp. 1712–1714, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. M. Soyka, C. Graz, R. Bottlender, P. Dirschedl, and H. Schoech, “Clinical correlates of later violence and criminal offences in schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Research, vol. 94, no. 1–3, pp. 89–98, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. O. Ekinci and A. Ekinci, “Association between insight, cognitive insight, positive symptoms and violence in patients with schizophrenia,” Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 67, no. 2, pp. 116–123, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  86. G. L. Calatayud, N. H. Sebastián, E. A. García-Iturrospe, J. C. G. Piqueras, J. S. Arias, and C. L. Cercós, “Relationship between insight, violence and diagnoses in psychotic patients,” Revista de Psiquiatria y Salud Mental, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 43–47, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. T. M. Lincoln and S. Hodgins, “Is lack of insight associated with physically aggressive behavior among people with schizophrenia living in the community?” The Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease, vol. 196, no. 1, pp. 62–66, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. D. I. Velligan, P. J. Weiden, M. Sajatovic et al., “The expert consensus guideline series: adherence problems in patients with serious and persistent mental illness,” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 70, supplement 4, pp. 1–46, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. A. Berger, J. Edelsberg, K. N. Sanders, J. M. Alvir, M. A. Mychaskiw, and G. Oster, “Medication adherence and utilization in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder receiving aripiprazole, quetiapine, or ziprasidone at hospital discharge: a retrospective cohort study,” BMC Psychiatry, vol. 12, no. 1, article 99, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  90. H. Ascher-Svanum, D. E. Faries, B. Zhu, F. R. Ernst, M. S. Swartz, and J. W. Swanson, “Medication adherence and long-term functional outcomes in the treatment of schizophrenia in usual care,” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 67, no. 3, pp. 453–460, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. M. S. Swartz, J. W. Swanson, V. A. Hiday, R. Borum, H. Ryan Wagner, and B. J. Burns, “Violence and severe mental illness: the effects of substance abuse and nonadherence to medication,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 155, no. 2, pp. 226–231, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. E. L. Coldham, J. Addington, and D. Addington, “Medication adherence of individuals with a first episode of psychosis,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, vol. 106, no. 4, pp. 286–290, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. H. Ascher-Svanum, B. Zhu, D. Faries, J. P. Lacro, and C. R. Dolder, “A prospective study of risk factors for nonadherence with antipsychotic medication in the treatment of schizophrenia,” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 67, no. 7, pp. 1114–1123, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. S. Mohamed, R. Rosenheck, J. McEvoy, M. Swartz, S. Stroup, and J. A. Lieberman, “Cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between insight and attitudes toward medication and clinical outcomes in chronic schizophrenia,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 336–346, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. R. S. Kahn, W. W. Fleischhacker, H. Boter et al., “Effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs in first-episode schizophrenia and schizophreniform disorder: an open randomised clinical trial,” The Lancet, vol. 371, no. 9618, pp. 1085–1097, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. R. Kemp, P. Hayward, G. Applewhaite, B. Everitt, and A. David, “Compliance therapy in psychotic patients: randomised controlled trial,” British Medical Journal, vol. 312, no. 7027, pp. 345–349, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. P. Czobor, J. Volavka, E. M. Derks et al., “Insight and hostility as predictors and correlates of nonadherence in the European first episode schizophrenia trial,” Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 258–261, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  98. J. Volavka, P. Czobor, L. Citrome et al., “Efficacy of aripiprazole against hostility in schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: data from 5 double-blind studies,” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 66, no. 11, pp. 1362–1366, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. J. Volavka, P. Czobor, B. Sheitman et al., “Clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol in the treatment of patients with chronic schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 159, no. 2, pp. 255–262, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. L. Citrome, J. Volavka, P. Czobor et al., “Effects of clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, and haloperidol on hostility among patients with schizophrenia,” Psychiatric Services, vol. 52, no. 11, pp. 1510–1514, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  101. J. Volavka, P. Czobor, K. Nolan et al., “Overt aggression and psychotic symptoms in patients with schizophrenia treated with clozapine, olanzapine, risperidone, or haloperidol,” Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 225–228, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. M. I. Krakowski, P. Czobor, L. Citrome, N. Bark, and T. B. Cooper, “Atypical antipsychotic agents in the treatment of violent patients with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 622–629, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. W. H. Wilson, “Clinical review of clozapine treatment in a state hospital,” Hospital and Community Psychiatry, vol. 43, no. 7, pp. 700–703, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. J. Volavka, J. M. Zito, J. Vitrai, and P. Czobor, “Clozapine effects on hostility and aggression in schizophrenia,” Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 287–289, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. T.-P. Su, J. Tuskan, L. Tsao, and D. Pickar, “Aggression during drug-free and antipsychotic treatment in inpatients with chronic schizophrenia, using the overt aggression scale,” in Proceedings of the 33rd Annual Meeting of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 229, San Juan, Puerto Rico, December 1994.
  106. P. Buckley, J. Bartell, K. Donenwirth, S. Lee, F. Torigoe, and S. C. Schulz, “Violence and schizophrenia: clozapine as a specific antiaggressive agent,” Bulletin of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 607–611, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. W. H. Wilson and A. M. Claussen, “18-month outcome of clozapine treatment for 100 patients in a state psychiatric hospital,” Psychiatric Services, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 386–389, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. J. Volavka, J. W. Swanson, and L. L. Citrome, “Understanding and managing violence in schizophrenia,” in Comprehensive Care of Schizophrenia: A Textbook of Clinical Management, J. A. Lieberman and R. M. Murray, Eds., pp. 262–290, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  109. S. Comai, M. Tau, Z. Pavlovic, and G. Gobbi, “The psychopharmacology of aggressive behavior: a translational approach—part 2: clinical studies using atypical antipsychotics, anticonvulsants, and lithium,” Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 237–260, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. A. Topiwala and S. Fazel, “The pharmacological management of violence in schizophrenia: a structured review,” Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 53–63, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. C. Frogley, D. Taylor, G. Dickens, and M. Picchioni, “A systematic review of the evidence of clozapine's antiaggressive effects,” The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1351–1371, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  112. J. Volavka, “Clozapine is gold standard, but questions remain,” The International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1201–1204, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  113. J. A. Lieberman, A. Z. Safferman, S. Pollack et al., “Clinical effects of clozapine in chronic schizophrenia: response to treatment and predictors of outcome,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 151, no. 12, pp. 1744–1752, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. J. Volavka, “Comorbid personality disorders and violent behavior in psychotic patients,” Psychiatric Quarterly, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  115. J. M. J. Alvir, J. A. Lieberman, A. Z. Safferman, J. L. Schwimmer, and J. A. Schaaf, “Clozapine-induced agranulocytosis: incidence and risk factors in the United States,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 329, no. 3, pp. 162–167, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. J. W. Swanson, M. S. Swartz, R. A. van Dorn et al., “Comparison of antipsychotic medication effects on reducing violence in people with schizophrenia,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 193, no. 1, pp. 37–43, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. J. Volavka, P. Czobor, L. Citrome, and R. A. van Dorn, “Effectiveness of antipsychotic drugs against hostility in patients with schizophrenia in the clinical antipsychotic trials of intervention effectiveness (CATIE) study,” CNS Spectrums, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  118. J. Volavka, P. Czobor, E. M. Derks et al., “Efficacy of antipsychotic drugs against hostility in the European first-episode schizophrenia trial (EUFEST),” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 72, no. 7, pp. 955–961, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  119. L. Citrome, M. Krakowski, W. M. Greenberg, E. Andrade, and J. Volavka, “Antiaggressive effect of quetiapine in a patient with schizoaffective disorder,” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 62, no. 11, p. 901, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. V. Villari, P. Rocca, V. Fonzo, C. Montemagni, P. Pandullo, and F. Bogetto, “Oral risperidone, olanzapine and quetiapine versus haloperidol in psychotic agitation,” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology and Biological Psychiatry, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 405–413, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  121. C. Arango and M. Bernardo, “The effect of quetiapine on aggression and hostility in patients with schizophrenia,” Human Psychopharmacology, vol. 20, no. 4, pp. 237–241, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. P. Czobor, J. Volavka, and R. C. Meibach, “Effect of risperidone on hostility in schizophrenia,” Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 243–249, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. K. N. R. Chengappa, J. Levine, R. Ulrich et al., “Impact of risperidone on seclusion and restraint at a state psychiatric hospital,” Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 45, no. 9, pp. 827–832, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. I. Bitter, P. Czobor, M. Dossenbach, and J. Volavka, “Effectiveness of clozapine, olanzapine, quetiapine, risperidone, and haloperidol monotherapy in reducing hostile and aggressive behavior in outpatients treated for schizophrenia: a prospective naturalistic study (IC-SOHO),” European Psychiatry, vol. 20, no. 5-6, pp. 403–408, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. S. Brook, J. Walden, I. Benattia, C. O. Siu, and S. J. Romano, “Ziprasidone and haloperidol in the treatment of acute exacerbation of schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder: comparison of intramuscular and oral formulations in a 6-week, randomized, blinded-assessment study,” Psychopharmacology, vol. 178, no. 4, pp. 514–523, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. L. Citrome, J. Volavka, P. Czobor, S. Brook, A. Loebel, and F. S. Mandel, “Efficacy of ziprasidone against hostility in schizophrenia: post hoc analysis of randomized, open-label study data,” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 638–642, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. N. J. Yorkston, J. H. Gruzelier, and S. A. Zaki, “Propranolol as an adjunct to the treatment of schizophrenia,” The Lancet, vol. 2, no. 8038, pp. 575–578, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. G. P. Sheppard, “High-dose propranolol in schizophrenia,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 134, no. 5, pp. 470–476, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. J. R. Whitman, G. J. Maier, and B. Eichelman, “Beta-adrenergic blockers for aggressive behavior in schizophrenia,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 144, no. 4, pp. 538–539, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  130. N. Caspi, I. Modai, P. Barak et al., “Pindolol augmentation in aggressive schizophrenic patients: a double-blind crossover randomized study,” International Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 111–115, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. W. J. Newman and B. E. McDermott, “Beta blockers for violence prophylaxis: case reports,” Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology, vol. 31, no. 6, pp. 785–787, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. L. Citrome, “Adjunctive lithium and anticonvulsants for the treatment of schizophrenia: what is the evidence?” Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 55–71, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. J. Volavka and L. Citrome, “Heterogeneity of violence in schizophrenia and implications for long-term treatment,” The International Journal of Clinical Practice, vol. 62, no. 8, pp. 1237–1245, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. J. Volavka and L. Citrome, “Pathways to aggression in schizophrenia affect results of treatment,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 37, no. 5, pp. 921–929, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. M. S. Swartz, J. W. Swanson, V. A. Hiday, R. Borum, R. Wagner, and B. J. Burns, “Taking the wrong drugs: the role of substance abuse and medication noncompliance in violence among severely mentally ill individuals,” Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. S75–S80, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. J. W. Swanson, M. S. Swartz, R. Borum, V. A. Hiday, H. R. Wagner, and B. J. Burns, “Involuntary out-patient commitment and reduction of violent behaviour in persons with severe mental illness,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 176, pp. 324–331, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. K. F. Yates, M. Kunz, A. Khan, J. Volavka, and S. Rabinowitz, “Psychiatric patients with histories of aggression and crime five years after discharge from a cognitive-behavioral program,” Journal of Forensic Psychiatry & Psychology, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 167–188, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. G. Haddock, C. Barrowclough, J. J. Shaw, G. Dunn, R. W. Novaco, and N. Tarrier, “Cognitive-behavioural therapy υ. social activity therapy for people with psychosis and a history of violence: randomised controlled trial,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 194, no. 2, pp. 152–157, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. A. E. Cullen, A. Y. Clarke, E. Kuipers, S. Hodgins, K. Dean, and T. Fahy, “A multi-site randomized controlled trial of a cognitive skills programme for male mentally disordered offenders: violence and antisocial behavior outcomes,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 80, no. 6, pp. 1114–1120, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  140. K. T. Mueser, F. Deavers, D. L. Penn, and J. E. Cassisi, “Psychosocial treatments for schizophrenia,” Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, vol. 9, pp. 465–497, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  141. R. L. Binder and D. E. McNiel, “Effects of diagnosis and context on dangerousness,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 145, no. 6, pp. 728–732, 1988. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  142. K. Barlow, B. Grenyer, and O. Ilkiw-Lavalle, “Prevalence and precipitants of aggression in psychiatric inpatient units,” Australian & New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 967–974, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  143. P. W. Corrigan and A. C. Watson, “Findings from the national comorbidity survey on the frequency of violent behavior in individuals with psychiatric disorders,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 136, no. 2-3, pp. 153–162, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  144. A. J. Pulay, D. A. Dawson, D. S. Hasin et al., “Violent behavior and DSM-IV psychiatric disorders: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions,” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 69, no. 1, pp. 12–22, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. B. F. Grant, F. S. Stinson, D. S. Hasin et al., “Prevalence, correlates, and comorbidity of bipolar I disorder and axis I and II disorders: results from the national epidemiologic survey on alcohol and related conditions,” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 66, no. 10, pp. 1205–1215, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. S. Fazel, P. Lichtenstein, M. Grann, G. M. Goodwin, and N. Långström, “Bipolar disorder and violent crime: new evidence from population-based longitudinal studies and systematic review,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 67, no. 9, pp. 931–938, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. S. Fazel, P. Lichtenstein, T. Frisell, M. Grann, G. Goodwin, and N. Långström, “Bipolar disorder and violent crime: time at risk reanalysis,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 67, no. 12, pp. 1325–1326, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. P. P. Christopher, P. J. McCabe, and W. H. Fisher, “Prevalence of involvement in the criminal justice system during severe mania and associated symptomatology,” Psychiatric Services, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 33–39, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. J. Ballester, T. Goldstein, B. Goldstein et al., “Is bipolar disorder specifically associated with aggression?” Bipolar Disorders, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 283–290, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. K. Latalova, “Bipolar disorder and aggression,” The International Journal of Clinical Practice, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 889–899, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  151. K. Latalova, Aggression in Psychiatry, Grada, Prague, Czech Republic, 2013, (Czech).
  152. K. Latalova, Bipolar Affective Disorder, Grada, Prague, Czech Republic, 2011, (Czech).
  153. J. L. Garno, N. Gunawardane, and J. F. Goldberg, “Predictors of trait aggression in bipolar disorder,” Bipolar Disorders, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 285–292, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. G. L. Brown, F. K. Goodwin, J. C. Ballenger, P. F. Goyer, and L. F. Major, “Aggression in humans correlates with cerebrospinal fluid amine metabolites,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 131–139, 1979. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. D. P. Bernstein, L. Fink, L. Handelsman et al., “Initial reliability and validity of a new retrospective measure of child abuse and neglect,” The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 151, no. 8, pp. 1132–1136, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. M. A. Oquendo, C. Waternaux, B. Brodsky et al., “Suicidal behavior in bipolar mood disorder: clinical characteristics of attempters and nonattempters,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 59, no. 2, pp. 107–117, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. A. H. Buss and A. Durkee, “An inventory for assessing different kinds of hostility,” Journal of Consulting Psychology, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 343–349, 1957. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. B. H. Michaelis, J. F. Goldberg, G. P. Davis, T. M. Singer, J. L. Garno, and S. J. Wenze, “Dimensions of impulsivity and aggression associated with suicide attempts among bipolar patients: a preliminary study,” Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 172–176, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. R. H. Perlis, S. Miyahara, L. B. Marangell et al., “Long-term implications of early onset in bipolar disorder: data from the first 1000 participants in the systematic treatment enhancement program for bipolar disorder (STEP-BD),” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 875–881, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. C. F. Baldassano, “Illness course, comorbidity, gender, and suicidality in patients with bipolar disorder,” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 67, supplement 11, pp. 8–11, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  161. I. M. Salloum, J. R. Cornelius, J. E. Mezzich, and L. Kirisci, “Impact of concurrent alcohol misuse on symptom presentation of acute mania at initial evaluation,” Bipolar Disorders, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 418–421, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  162. J. Volavka and J. Swanson, “Violent behavior in mental illness: the role of substance abuse,” The Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 304, no. 5, pp. 563–564, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  163. M. I. Good, “Primary affective disorder, aggression, and criminality. A review and clinical study,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 35, no. 8, pp. 954–960, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  164. W. F. Thorneloe and E. L. Crews, “Manic depressive illness concomitant with antisocial personality disorder: six case reports and review of the literature,” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 5–9, 1981. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  165. B. Carpiniello, L. Lai, S. Pirarba, C. Sardu, and F. Pinna, “Impulsivity and aggressiveness in bipolar disorder with co-morbid borderline personality disorder,” Psychiatry Research, vol. 188, no. 1, pp. 40–44, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  166. K. Látalová and J. Praško, “Aggression in borderline personality disorder,” Psychiatric Quarterly, vol. 81, no. 3, pp. 239–251, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  167. M. Hamilton, “Development of a rating scale for primary depressive illness,” British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, vol. 6, no. 4, pp. 278–296, 1967. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  168. R. C. Young, J. T. Biggs, V. E. Ziegler, and D. A. Meyer, “A rating scale for mania: reliability, validity and sensitivity,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 133, no. 11, pp. 429–435, 1978. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  169. K. Latalova, “Insight in bipolar disorder,” Psychiatric Quarterly, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 293–310, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  170. C.-F. Yen, C.-S. Chen, J.-Y. Yen, and C.-H. Ko, “The predictive effect of insight on adverse clinical outcomes in bipolar I disorder: a two-year prospective study,” Journal of Affective Disorders, vol. 108, no. 1-2, pp. 121–127, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  171. A. S. David, “Insight and psychosis,” The British Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 156, pp. 798–808, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  172. M. Serper, D. R. Beech, P. D. Harvey, and C. Dill, “Neuropsychological and symptom predictors of aggression on the psychiatric inpatient service,” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, vol. 30, no. 6, pp. 700–709, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  173. M. Mur, M. J. Portella, A. Martínez-Arán, J. Pifarré, and E. Vieta, “Persistent neuropsychological deficit in euthymic bipolar patients: executive function as a core deficit,” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 68, no. 7, pp. 1078–1086, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  174. K. Latalova, J. Prasko, T. Diveky, and H. Velartova, “Cognitive impairment in bipolar disorder,” Biomedical Papers, vol. 155, no. 1, pp. 19–26, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  175. G. Huf, J. Alexander, M. H. Allen, and N. S. Raveendran, “Haloperidol plus promethazine for psychosis-induced aggression,” Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, no. 3, Article ID CD005146, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  176. L. Citrome, “Comparison of intramuscular ziprasidone, olanzapine, or aripiprazole for agitation: a quantitative review of efficacy and safety,” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 68, no. 12, pp. 1876–1885, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  177. M. Pratts, W. Grant, L. A. Opler et al., “Treating acutely agitated patients with asenapine sublingual tablets: a single-dose, randomized, double-blind placebo controlled trial,” in Proceedings of the 53rd Annual NCDEU Meeting, pp. 28–31, Hollywood, Calif, USA, May 2013.
  178. L. Citrome, “Inhaled loxapine for agitation revisited: focus on effect sizes from 2 phase III randomised controlled trials in persons with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder,” The International Journal of Clinical Practice, vol. 66, no. 3, pp. 318–325, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  179. L. Citrome, “Addressing the need for rapid treatment of agitation in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder: focus on inhaled loxapine as an alternative to injectable agents,” Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, vol. 2013, article 9, pp. 235–245, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  180. J. Kwentus, R. A. Riesenberg, M. Marandi et al., “Rapid acute treatment of agitation in patients with bipolar I disorder: a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial with inhaled loxapine,” Bipolar Disorders, vol. 14, no. 1, pp. 31–40, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  181. N. Collins, T. R. E. Barnes, A. Shingleton-Smith, D. Gerrett, and C. Paton, “Standards of lithium monitoring in mental health trusts in the UK,” BMC Psychiatry, vol. 10, article 80, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  182. A. Podawiltz, “A review of current bipolar disorder treatment guidelines,” The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, vol. 73, no. 3, article e12, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  183. K. N. Fountoulakis, S. Kasper, O. Andreassen et al., “Efficacy of pharmacotherapy in bipolar disorder: a report by the WPA section on pharmacopsychiatry,” European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience, vol. 262, no. 1, supplement, pp. 1–48, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  184. S. D. Cochran, “Preventing medical noncompliance in the outpatient treatment of bipolar affective disorders,” Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 873–878, 1984. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  185. M. R. Basco and A. J. Rush, Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Bipolar Disorder, Guilford Press, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2007.
  186. E. Herman, P. Grof, J. Hovorka, J. Prasko, and P. Doubek, “Bipolar disorder,” in Postupy v Lecbe Psychickych Poruch, D. Seifertova, J. Prasko, and C. Hoschl, Eds., pp. 93–120, Academia Medica Pragensis, Prague, Czech Republic, 2004, (Czech). View at Google Scholar