Table of Contents
Advances in Psychiatry
Volume 2014, Article ID 346157, 5 pages
Research Article

The Cloninger Type I/Type II Typology: Configurations and Personality Profiles in Socially Stable Alcohol Dependent Patients

1Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden
2Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, 405 30 Gothenburg, Sweden
3Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, 413 45 Gothenburg, Sweden

Received 26 August 2014; Revised 28 November 2014; Accepted 7 December 2014; Published 17 December 2014

Academic Editor: Georges Brousse

Copyright © 2014 Peter Wennberg et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Many attempts have been made to derive alcohol use typologies or subtypes of alcohol dependence and this study aimed at validating the type I/type II typology in a treatment sample of socially stable alcohol dependent males and females. A second aim was to compare the two types with respect to their temperament profiles. Data was part of a larger ongoing longitudinal study, the Gothenburg Alcohol Research Project, and included 269 alcohol dependent males and females recruited from three treatment centers. The results showed that type II alcoholism occurred as a more homogenous type than type I alcoholism, and type I alcoholism seemed too heterogeneous to be summarized into one single type. When adapting a strict classification, less than a third of the study population could be classified in accordance with the typology, suggesting that the typology is not applicable, at least in socially stable individuals with alcohol dependence. The results also showed that type II alcoholics showed higher levels of novelty seeking than did the individuals that were classified as type I alcoholics. Quite surprisingly, the individuals classified as type II alcoholics also showed higher levels of harm avoidance than did the individuals that were classified as type I alcoholics.