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Volume 2012 (2012), Article ID 513231, 9 pages
Research Article

Synthetic Archaeosome Vaccines Containing Triglycosylarchaeols Can Provide Additive and Long-Lasting Immune Responses That Are Enhanced by Archaetidylserine

Institute for Biological Sciences, National Research Council of Canada, 100 Sussex Drive, Ottawa, ON, Canada K1A 0R6

Received 6 July 2012; Accepted 23 August 2012

Academic Editor: Angela Corcelli

Copyright © 2012 G. Dennis Sprott et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The relation between archaeal lipid structures and their activity as adjuvants may be defined and explored by synthesizing novel head groups covalently linked to archaeol (2,3-diphytanyl-sn-glycerol). Saturated archaeol, that is suitably stable as a precursor for chemical synthesis, was obtained in high yield from Halobacterium salinarum. Archaeosomes consisting of the various combinations of synthesized lipids, with antigen entrapped, were used to immunize mice and subsequently determine CD8+ and CD4+-T cell immune responses. Addition of 45 mol% of the glycolipids gentiotriosylarchaeol, mannotriosylarchaeol or maltotriosylarchaeol to an archaetidylglycerophosphate-O-methyl archaeosome, significantly enhanced the CD8+ T cell response to antigen, but diminished the antibody titres in peripheral blood. Archaeosomes consisting of all three triglycosyl archaeols combined with archaetidylglycerophosphate-O-methyl (15/15/15/55 mol%) resulted in approximately additive CD8+ T cell responses and also an antibody response not significantly different from the archaetidylglycerophosphate-O-methyl alone. Synthetic archaetidylserine played a role to further enhance the CD8+ T cell response where the optimum content was 20–30 mol%. Vaccines giving best protection against solid tumor growth corresponded to the archaeosome adjuvant composition that gave highest immune activity in immunized mice.