Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Archaea
Volume 2017, Article ID 1654237, 22 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1654237
Review Article

Reverse Methanogenesis and Respiration in Methanotrophic Archaea

1Laboratory of Microbiology, Wageningen University, Stippeneng 4, 6708 WE Wageningen, Netherlands
2Wetsus, European Centre of Excellence for Sustainable Water Technology, Oostergoweg 9, 8911 MA Leeuwarden, Netherlands
3Soehngen Institute of Anaerobic Microbiology, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen, Netherlands
4Department of Microbiology, Radboud University, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen, Netherlands
5Laboratory of Systems and Synthetic Biology, Wageningen University, Stippeneng 4, 6708 WE Wageningen, Netherlands
6TU Delft Biotechnology, Julianalaan 67, 2628 BC Delft, Netherlands
7Centre of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga, Portugal

Correspondence should be addressed to Peer H. A. Timmers; ln.ruw@sremmit.reep

Received 3 August 2016; Revised 11 October 2016; Accepted 31 October 2016; Published 5 January 2017

Academic Editor: Michael W. Friedrich

Copyright © 2017 Peer H. A. Timmers et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. A. Boetius, K. Ravenschlag, C. J. Schubert et al., “A marine microbial consortium apparently mediating anaerobic oxidation of methane,” Nature, vol. 407, no. 6804, pp. 623–626, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. K.-U. Hinrichs, J. M. Hayes, S. P. Sylva, P. G. Brewert, and E. F. DeLong, “Methane-consuming archaebacteria in marine sediments,” Nature, vol. 398, no. 6730, pp. 802–805, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. V. J. Orphan, C. H. House, K.-U. Hinrichs, K. D. McKeegan, and E. F. DeLong, “Methane-consuming archaea revealed by directly coupled isotopic and phylogenetic analysis,” Science, vol. 293, no. 5529, pp. 484–487, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. K.-U. Hinrichs and A. Boetius, “The anaerobic oxidation of methane: new insights in microbial ecology and biogeochemistry,” in Ocean Margin Systems, G. Wefer, D. Billett, D. Hebbeln, B. B. Jørgensen, M. Schlüter, and T. Van Weering, Eds., pp. 457–477, Springer, Berlin, Germany, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  5. K. Knittel, T. Lösekann, A. Boetius, R. Kort, and R. Amann, “Diversity and distribution of methanotrophic archaea at cold seeps,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 467–479, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. Knittel and A. Boetius, “Anaerobic oxidation of methane: progress with an unknown process,” Annual Review of Microbiology, vol. 63, pp. 311–334, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. V. J. Orphan, K.-U. Hinrichs, W. Ussler III et al., “Comparative analysis of methane-oxidizing archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria in anoxic marine sediments,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 1922–1934, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. T. Lösekann, K. Knittel, T. Nadalig et al., “Diversity and abundance of aerobic and anaerobic methane oxidizers at the Haakon Mosby Mud Volcano, Barents Sea,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 73, no. 10, pp. 3348–3362, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. Niemann, T. Lösekann, D. De Beer et al., “Novel microbial communities of the Haakon Mosby mud volcano and their role as a methane sink,” Nature, vol. 443, no. 7113, pp. 854–858, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. T. Nunoura, H. Oida, T. Toki, J. Ashi, K. Takai, and K. Horikoshi, “Quantification of mcrA by quantitative fluorescent PCR in sediments from methane seep of the Nankai Trough,” FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol. 57, no. 1, pp. 149–157, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. B. Orcutt, A. Boetius, M. Elvert, V. Samarkin, and S. B. Joye, “Molecular biogeochemistry of sulfate reduction, methanogenesis and the anaerobic oxidation of methane at Gulf of Mexico cold seeps,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 69, no. 17, pp. 4267–4281, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  12. V. J. Orphan, W. Ussler III, T. H. Naehr, C. H. House, K.-U. Hinrichs, and C. K. Paull, “Geological, geochemical, and microbiological heterogeneity of the seafloor around methane vents in the Eel River Basin, offshore California,” Chemical Geology, vol. 205, no. 3-4, pp. 265–289, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. G. Pachiadaki, A. Kallionaki, A. Dählmann, G. J. De Lange, and K. A. Kormas, “Diversity and spatial distribution of prokaryotic communities along a sediment vertical profile of a deep-sea mud volcano,” Microbial Ecology, vol. 62, no. 3, pp. 655–668, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. I. Roalkvam, H. Dahle, Y. Chen, S. L. Jørgensen, H. Haflidason, and I. H. Steen, “Fine-scale community structure analysis of ANME in Nyegga sediments with high and low methane flux,” Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 3, p. 216, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. K. Yanagawa, M. Sunamura, M. A. Lever et al., “Niche separation of methanotrophic archaea (ANME-1 and -2) in methane-seep sediments of the Eastern Japan Sea offshore Joetsu,” Geomicrobiology Journal, vol. 28, no. 2, pp. 118–129, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. A. Pernthaler, A. E. Dekas, C. T. Brown, S. K. Goffredi, T. Embaye, and V. J. Orphan, “Diverse syntrophic partnerships from deep-sea methane vents revealed by direct cell capture and metagenomics,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 105, no. 19, pp. 7052–7057, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. Hatzenpichler, S. A. Connon, D. Goudeau, R. R. Malmstrom, T. Woyke, and V. J. Orphan, “Visualizing in situ translational activity for identifying and sorting slow-growing archaeal−bacterial consortia,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 113, no. 28, pp. E4069–E4078, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. L. Maignien, R. J. Parkes, B. Cragg et al., “Anaerobic oxidation of methane in hypersaline cold seep sediments,” FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 214–231, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. V. J. Orphan, C. H. House, K.-U. Hinrichs, K. D. McKeegan, and E. F. DeLong, “Multiple archaeal groups mediate methane oxidation in anoxic cold seep sediments,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 99, no. 11, pp. 7663–7668, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. T. Treude, M. Krüger, A. Boetius, and B. B. Jørgensen, “Environmental control on anaerobic oxidation of methane in the gassy sediments of Eckernförde Bay (German Baltic),” Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 50, no. 6, pp. 1771–1786, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. G. C. Jagersma, R. J. W. Meulepas, I. Heikamp-De Jong et al., “Microbial diversity and community structure of a highly active anaerobic methane-oxidizing sulfate-reducing enrichment,” Environmental Microbiology, vol. 11, no. 12, pp. 3223–3232, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. Blumenberg, R. Seifert, J. Reitner, T. Pape, and W. Michaelis, “Membrane lipid patterns typify distinct anaerobic methanotrophic consortia,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 101, no. 30, pp. 11111–11116, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. S. Bertram, M. Blumenberg, W. Michaelis, M. Siegert, M. Krüger, and R. Seifert, “Methanogenic capabilities of ANME-archaea deduced from 13C-labelling approaches,” Environmental Microbiology, vol. 15, no. 8, pp. 2384–2393, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. K. G. Lloyd, M. J. Alperin, and A. Teske, “Environmental evidence for net methane production and oxidation in putative ANaerobic MEthanotrophic (ANME) archaea,” Environmental Microbiology, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 2548–2564, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. Takeuchi, H. Yoshioka, Y. Seo et al., “A distinct freshwater-adapted subgroup of ANME-1 dominates active archaeal communities in terrestrial subsurfaces in Japan,” Environmental Microbiology, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 3206–3218, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. T. Amos, B. A. Bekins, I. M. Cozzarelli et al., “Evidence for iron-mediated anaerobic methane oxidation in a crude oil-contaminated aquifer,” Geobiology, vol. 10, no. 6, pp. 506–517, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. H. Timmers, D. A. Suarez-Zuluaga, M. van Rossem, M. Diender, A. J. Stams, and C. M. Plugge, “Anaerobic oxidation of methane associated with sulfate reduction in a natural freshwater gas source,” ISME Journal, vol. 10, pp. 1400–1412, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. M. F. Haroon, S. Hu, Y. Shi et al., “Anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to nitrate reduction in a novel archaeal lineage,” Nature, vol. 500, no. 7468, pp. 567–570, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. H. J. Mills, C. Hodges, K. Wilson, I. R. MacDonald, and P. A. Sobecky, “Microbial diversity in sediments associated with surface-breaching gas hydrate mounds in the Gulf of Mexico,” FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 39–52, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. K. G. Lloyd, L. Lapham, and A. Teske, “An anaerobic methane-oxidizing community of ANME-1b archaea in hypersaline gulf of Mexico sediments,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 72, no. 11, pp. 7218–7230, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. A. A. Raghoebarsing, A. Pol, K. T. Van De Pas-Schoonen et al., “A microbial consortium couples anaerobic methane oxidation to denitrification,” Nature, vol. 440, no. 7086, pp. 918–921, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. S. Hu, R. J. Zeng, L. C. Burow, P. Lant, J. Keller, and Z. Yuan, “Enrichment of denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidizing microorganisms,” Environmental Microbiology Reports, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 377–384, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. Z.-W. Ding, J. Ding, L. Fu, F. Zhang, and R. J. Zeng, “Simultaneous enrichment of denitrifying methanotrophs and anammox bacteria,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 98, no. 24, pp. 10211–10221, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. R. Seifert, K. Nauhaus, M. Blumenberg, M. Krüger, and W. Michaelis, “Methane dynamics in a microbial community of the Black Sea traced by stable carbon isotopes in vitro,” Organic Geochemistry, vol. 37, no. 10, pp. 1411–1419, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. Ding, Z.-W. Ding, L. Fu, Y.-Z. Lu, S. H. Cheng, and R. J. Zeng, “New primers for detecting and quantifying denitrifying anaerobic methane oxidation archaea in different ecological niches,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 99, no. 22, pp. 9805–9812, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. A. Vaksmaa, C. Lüke, T. van Alen et al., “Distribution and activity of the anaerobic methanotrophic community in a nitrogen-fertilized Italian paddy soil,” FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol. 92, no. 12, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. P. N. Evans, D. H. Parks, G. L. Chadwick et al., “Methane metabolism in the archaeal phylum Bathyarchaeota revealed by genome-centric metagenomics,” Science, vol. 350, no. 6259, pp. 434–438, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. I. Vanwonterghem, P. N. Evans, D. H. Parks et al., “Methylotrophic methanogenesis discovered in the archaeal phylum Verstraetearchaeota,” Nature Microbiology, vol. 1, Article ID 16170, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  39. P. Worm, J. J. Koehorst, M. Visser et al., “A genomic view on syntrophic versus non-syntrophic lifestyle in anaerobic fatty acid degrading communities,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta—Bioenergetics, vol. 1837, no. 12, pp. 2004–2016, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. R. Stokke, I. Roalkvam, A. Lanzen, H. Haflidason, and I. H. Steen, “Integrated metagenomic and metaproteomic analyses of an ANME-1-dominated community in marine cold seep sediments,” Environmental Microbiology, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 1333–1346, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. Meyerdierks, M. Kube, I. Kostadinov et al., “Metagenome and mRNA expression analyses of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea of the ANME-1 group,” Environmental Microbiology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 422–439, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. F.-P. Wang, Y. Zhang, Y. Chen et al., “Methanotrophic archaea possessing diverging methane-oxidizing and electron-transporting pathways,” ISME Journal, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 1069–1078, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. A. Arshad, D. R. Speth, R. M. de Graaf, H. J. Op den Camp, M. S. Jetten, and C. U. Welte, “A metagenomics-based metabolic model of nitrate-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane by Methanoperedens-like archaea,” Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 6, article1423, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. S. J. Hallam, N. Putnam, C. M. Preston et al., “Reverse methanogenesis: testing the hypothesis with environmental genomics,” Science, vol. 305, no. 5689, pp. 1457–1462, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. R. K. Thauer, “Anaerobic oxidation of methane with sulfate: on the reversibility of the reactions that are catalyzed by enzymes also involved in methanogenesis from CO2,” Current Opinion in Microbiology, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 292–299, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. U. Deppenmeier, V. Müller, and G. Gottschalk, “Pathways of energy conservation in methanogenic archaea,” Archives of Microbiology, vol. 165, no. 3, pp. 149–163, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. A.-K. Kaster, J. Moll, K. Parey, and R. K. Thauer, “Coupling of ferredoxin and heterodisulfide reduction via electron bifurcation in hydrogenotrophic methanogenic archaea,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 108, no. 7, pp. 2981–2986, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. R. K. Thauer, A.-K. Kaster, H. Seedorf, W. Buckel, and R. Hedderich, “Methanogenic archaea: ecologically relevant differences in energy conservation,” Nature Reviews Microbiology, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 579–591, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. W. Ludwig, O. Strunk, R. Westram et al., “ARB: a software environment for sequence data,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 1363–1371, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. E. Pruesse, C. Quast, K. Knittel et al., “SILVA: a comprehensive online resource for quality checked and aligned ribosomal RNA sequence data compatible with ARB,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 35, no. 21, pp. 7188–7196, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. J. J. Marlow, C. T. Skennerton, Z. Li et al., “Proteomic stable isotope probing reveals biosynthesis dynamics of slow growing methane based microbial communities,” Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 7, article 386, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  52. P. V. Welander and W. W. Metcalf, “Loss of the mtr operon in Methanosarcina blocks growth on methanol, but not methanogenesis, and reveals an unknown methanogenic pathway,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 102, no. 30, pp. 10664–10669, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. P. V. Welander and W. W. Metcalf, “Mutagenesis of the C1 oxidation pathway in methanosarcina barkeri: new insights into the Mtr/Mer bypass pathway,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 190, no. 6, pp. 1928–1936, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. Goenrich, R. K. Thauer, H. Yurimoto, and N. Kato, “Formaldehyde activating enzyme (Fae) and hexulose-6-phosphate synthase (Hps) in Methanosarcina barkeri: a possible function in ribose-5-phosphate biosynthesis,” Archives of Microbiology, vol. 184, no. 1, pp. 41–48, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. M. Goenrich, F. Mahlert, E. C. Duin, C. Bauer, B. Jaun, and R. K. Thauer, “Probing the reactivity of Ni in the active site of methyl-coenzyme M reductase with substrate analogues,” Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 691–705, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. S. Scheller, M. Goenrich, R. Boecher, R. K. Thauer, and B. Jaun, “The key nickel enzyme of methanogenesis catalyses the anaerobic oxidation of methane,” Nature, vol. 465, no. 7298, pp. 606–608, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. K. Nauhaus, A. Boetius, M. Krüger, and F. Widdel, “In vitro demonstration of anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulphate reduction in sediment from a marine gas hydrate area,” Environmental Microbiology, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 296–305, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. Y. Zhang, J.-P. Henriet, J. Bursens, and N. Boon, “Stimulation of in vitro anaerobic oxidation of methane rate in a continuous high-pressure bioreactor,” Bioresource Technology, vol. 101, no. 9, pp. 3132–3138, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. M. Krüger, T. Treude, H. Wolters, K. Nauhaus, and A. Boetius, “Microbial methane turnover in different marine habitats,” Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, vol. 227, no. 1–3, pp. 6–17, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. C. Deusner, V. Meyer, and T. G. Ferdelman, “High-pressure systems for gas-phase free continuous incubation of enriched marine microbial communities performing anaerobic oxidation of methane,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 105, no. 3, pp. 524–533, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. K. Nauhaus, T. Treude, A. Boetius, and M. Krüger, “Environmental regulation of the anaerobic oxidation of methane: a comparison of ANME-I and ANME-II communities,” Environmental Microbiology, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 98–106, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. T. Treude, V. Orphan, K. Knittel, A. Gieseke, C. H. House, and A. Boetius, “Consumption of methane and CO2 by methanotrophic microbial mats from gas seeps of the anoxic Black Sea,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 73, no. 7, pp. 2271–2283, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. T. Holler, F. Widdel, K. Knittel et al., “Thermophilic anaerobic oxidation of methane by marine microbial consortia,” ISME Journal, vol. 5, no. 12, pp. 1946–1956, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. M. Krüger, M. Blumenberg, S. Kasten et al., “A novel, multi-layered methanotrophic microbial mat system growing on the sediment of the Black Sea,” Environmental Microbiology, vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 1934–1947, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. R. J. W. Meulepas, C. G. Jagersma, J. Gieteling, C. J. N. Buisman, A. J. M. Stams, and P. N. L. Lens, “Enrichment of anaerobic methanotrophs in sulfate-reducing membrane bioreactors,” Biotechnology and Bioengineering, vol. 104, no. 3, pp. 458–470, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. T. Holler, G. Wegener, H. Niemann et al., “Carbon and sulfur back flux during anaerobic microbial oxidation of methane and coupled sulfate reduction,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 108, no. 52, pp. E1484–E1490, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. M. Krüger, A. Meyerdierks, F. O. Glöckner et al., “A conspicuous nickel protein in microbial mats that oxidize methane anaerobically,” Nature, vol. 426, no. 6968, pp. 878–881, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. S. Mayr, C. Latkoczy, M. Krüger et al., “Structure of an F430 variant from archaea associated with anaerobic oxidation of methane,” Journal of the American Chemical Society, vol. 130, no. 32, pp. 10758–10767, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. S. Shima and R. K. Thauer, “Methyl-coenzyme M reductase and the anaerobic oxidation of methane in methanotrophic Archaea,” Current Opinion in Microbiology, vol. 8, no. 6, pp. 643–648, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. R. K. Thauer and S. Shima, “Methane as fuel for anaerobic microorganisms,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 1125, pp. 158–170, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. S. Yamamoto, J. B. Alcauskas, and T. E. Crozier, “Solubility of methane in distilled water and seawater,” Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 78–80, 1976. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. P. H. A. Timmers, J. Gieteling, H. C. A. Widjaja-Greefkes et al., “Growth of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria in a high-pressure membrane capsule bioreactor,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 81, no. 4, pp. 1286–1296, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. M. Krüger, H. Wolters, M. Gehre, S. B. Joye, and H.-H. Richnow, “Tracing the slow growth of anaerobic methane-oxidizing communities by 15N-labelling techniques,” FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol. 63, no. 3, pp. 401–411, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. R. J. W. Meulepas, C. G. Jagersma, A. F. Khadem, C. J. N. Buisman, A. J. M. Stams, and P. N. L. Lens, “Effect of environmental conditions on sulfate reduction with methane as electron donor by an Eckernförde Bay enrichment,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 43, no. 17, pp. 6553–6559, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. M. W. Bowles, V. A. Samarkin, and S. B. Joye, “Improved measurement of microbial activity in deep-sea sediments at in situ pressure and methane concentration,” Limnology and Oceanography: Methods, vol. 9, pp. 499–506, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. S. Shima, M. Krueger, T. Weinert et al., “Structure of a methyl-coenzyme M reductase from Black Sea mats that oxidize methane anaerobically,” Nature, vol. 481, no. 7379, pp. 98–101, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. K. D. Allen, G. Wegener, and R. H. White, “Discovery of multiple modified F-430 coenzymes in methanogens and anaerobic methanotrophic archaea suggests possible new roles for F-430 in nature,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 80, no. 20, pp. 6403–6412, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. V. W. Soo, M. J. McAnulty, A. Tripathi et al., “Reversing methanogenesis to capture methane for liquid biofuel precursors,” Microbial Cell Factories, vol. 15, article 11, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  79. D. L. Valentine and W. S. Reeburgh, “New perspectives on anaerobic methane oxidation,” Environmental Microbiology, vol. 2, no. 5, pp. 477–484, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. D. L. Valentine, “Biogeochemistry and microbial ecology of methane oxidation in anoxic environments: a review,” Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology, vol. 81, no. 1-4, pp. 271–282, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. A. J. B. Zehnder and T. D. Brock, “Methane formation and methane oxidation by methanogenic bacteria,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 137, no. 1, pp. 420–432, 1979. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. J. Harder, “Anaerobic methane oxidation by bacteria employing 14C-methane uncontaminated with 14C-carbon monoxide,” Marine Geology, vol. 137, no. 1-2, pp. 13–23, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. J. J. Moran, C. H. House, K. H. Freeman, and J. G. Ferry, “Trace methane oxidation studied in several Euryarchaeota under diverse conditions,” Archaea, vol. 1, no. 5, pp. 303–309, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. J. J. Moran, C. H. House, B. Thomas, and K. H. Freeman, “Products of trace methane oxidation during nonmethyltrophic growth by Methanosarcina,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, vol. 112, no. 2, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. R. J. W. Meulepas, C. G. Jagersma, Y. Zhang et al., “Trace methane oxidation and the methane dependency of sulfate reduction in anaerobic granular sludge,” FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol. 72, no. 2, pp. 261–271, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. A. J. B. Zehnder and T. D. Brock, “Anaerobic methane oxidation: occurrence and ecology,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 194–204, 1980. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. S. J. Blazewicz, D. G. Petersen, M. P. Waldrop, and M. K. Firestone, “Anaerobic oxidation of methane in tropical and boreal soils: ecological significance in terrestrial methane cycling,” Journal of Geophysical Research: Biogeosciences, vol. 117, no. 2, Article ID G02033, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. K. A. Smemo and J. B. Yavitt, “Evidence for anaerobic CH4 oxidation in freshwater peatlands,” Geomicrobiology Journal, vol. 24, no. 7-8, pp. 583–597, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. M. J. Alperin and T. M. Hoehler, “Anaerobic methane oxidation by archaea/sulfate-reducing bacteria aggregates: 1. Thermodynamic and physical constraints,” American Journal of Science, vol. 309, no. 10, pp. 869–957, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. S. L. Caldwell, J. R. Laidler, E. A. Brewer, J. O. Eberly, S. C. Sandborgh, and F. S. Colwell, “Anaerobic oxidation of methane: mechanisms, bioenergetics, and the ecology of associated microorganisms,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 42, no. 18, pp. 6791–6799, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  91. G. Wang, A. J. Spivack, and S. D'Hondt, “Gibbs energies of reaction and microbial mutualism in anaerobic deep subseafloor sediments of ODP Site 1226,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 74, no. 14, pp. 3938–3947, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. P. R. Girguis, A. E. Cozen, and E. F. DeLong, “Growth and population dynamics of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria in a continuous-flow bioreactor,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 71, no. 7, pp. 3725–3733, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. K. Nauhaus, M. Albrecht, M. Elvert, A. Boetius, and F. Widdel, “In vitro cell growth of marine archaeal-bacterial consortia during anaerobic oxidation of methane with sulfate,” Environmental Microbiology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 187–196, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. B. Orcutt, V. Samarkin, A. Boetius, and S. Joye, “On the relationship between methane production and oxidation by anaerobic methanotrophic communities from cold seeps of the Gulf of Mexico,” Environmental Microbiology, vol. 10, no. 5, pp. 1108–1117, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. M. Y. Yoshinaga, T. Holler, T. Goldhammer et al., “Carbon isotope equilibration during sulphate-limited anaerobic oxidation of methane,” Nature Geoscience, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 190–194, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. T. Treude, J. Niggemann, J. Kallmeyer et al., “Anaerobic oxidation of methane and sulfate reduction along the Chilean continental margin,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 69, no. 11, pp. 2767–2779, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  97. R. J. Parkes, B. A. Cragg, N. Banning et al., “Biogeochemistry and biodiversity of methane cycling in subsurface marine sediments (Skagerrak, Denmark),” Environmental Microbiology, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 1146–1161, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  98. N. J. Knab, B. A. Cragg, E. R. C. Hornibrook et al., “Regulation of anaerobic methane oxidation in sediments of the Black Sea,” Biogeosciences, vol. 6, no. 8, pp. 1505–1518, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. H. Yoshioka, A. Maruyama, T. Nakamura et al., “Activities and distribution of methanogenic and methane-oxidizing microbes in marine sediments from the Cascadia Margin,” Geobiology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 223–233, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  100. G. Wegener, V. Krukenberg, S. E. Ruff, M. Y. Kellermann, and K. Knittel, “Metabolic capabilities of microorganisms involved in and associated with the anaerobic oxidation of methane,” Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 7, article 46, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  101. R. J. W. Meulepas, C. G. Jagersma, A. F. Khadem, A. J. M. Stams, and P. N. L. Lens, “Effect of methanogenic substrates on anaerobic oxidation of methane and sulfate reduction by an anaerobic methanotrophic enrichment,” Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, vol. 87, no. 4, pp. 1499–1506, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. J. Milucka, T. G. Ferdelman, L. Polerecky et al., “Zero-valent sulphur is a key intermediate in marine methane oxidation,” Nature, vol. 491, no. 7425, pp. 541–546, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. W. Michaelis, R. Seifert, K. Nauhaus et al., “Microbial reefs in the black sea fueled by anaerobic oxidation of methane,” Science, vol. 297, no. 5583, pp. 1013–1015, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. A. Vigneron, P. Cruaud, P. Pignet et al., “Archaeal and anaerobic methane oxidizer communities in the Sonora Margin cold seeps, Guaymas Basin (Gulf of California),” ISME Journal, vol. 7, no. 8, pp. 1595–1608, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. M. Alperin and T. Hoehler, “The ongoing mystery of sea-floor methane,” Science, vol. 329, no. 5989, pp. 288–289, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  106. B. Orcutt and C. Meile, “Constraints on mechanisms and rates of anaerobic oxidation of methane by microbial consortia: process-based modeling of ANME-2 archaea and sulfate reducing bacteria interactions,” Biogeosciences, vol. 5, no. 6, pp. 1587–1599, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  107. S. E. McGlynn, G. L. Chadwick, C. P. Kempes, and V. J. Orphan, “Single cell activity reveals direct electron transfer in methanotrophic consortia,” Nature, vol. 526, no. 7574, pp. 531–535, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  108. D. R. Lovley, “Electromicrobiology,” Annual Review of Microbiology, vol. 66, pp. 391–409, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  109. S. M. Strycharz-Glaven, R. M. Snider, A. Guiseppi-Elie, and L. M. Tender, “On the electrical conductivity of microbial nanowires and biofilms,” Energy and Environmental Science, vol. 4, no. 11, pp. 4366–4379, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  110. D. J. Richardson, J. N. Butt, J. K. Fredrickson et al., “The ‘porin–cytochrome’ model for microbe-to-mineral electron transfer,” Molecular Microbiology, vol. 85, no. 2, pp. 201–212, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  111. A. Okamoto, K. Hashimoto, and R. Nakamura, “Long-range electron conduction of Shewanella biofilms mediated by outer membrane C-type cytochromes,” Bioelectrochemistry, vol. 85, pp. 61–65, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  112. M. Y. El-Naggar, G. Wanger, K. M. Leung et al., “Electrical transport along bacterial nanowires from Shewanella oneidensis MR-1,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 107, no. 42, pp. 18127–18131, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  113. G. Reguera, K. D. McCarthy, T. Mehta, J. S. Nicoll, M. T. Tuominen, and D. R. Lovley, “Extracellular electron transfer via microbial nanowires,” Nature, vol. 435, no. 7045, pp. 1098–1101, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  114. Z. M. Summers, H. E. Fogarty, C. Leang, A. E. Franks, N. S. Malvankar, and D. R. Lovley, “Direct exchange of electrons within aggregates of an evolved syntrophic coculture of anaerobic bacteria,” Science, vol. 330, no. 6009, pp. 1413–1415, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  115. A. Kletzin, T. Heimerl, J. Flechsler, L. V. Niftrik, R. Rachel, and A. Klingl, “Cytochromes c in archaea: distribution, maturation, cell architecture, and the special case of Ignicoccus hospitalis,” Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 6, article 439, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  116. G. Wegener, V. Krukenberg, D. Riedel, H. E. Tegetmeyer, and A. Boetius, “Intercellular wiring enables electron transfer between methanotrophic archaea and bacteria,” Nature, vol. 526, no. 7574, pp. 587–590, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  117. D. H. Haft, S. H. Payne, and J. D. Selengut, “Archaeosortases and exosortases are widely distributed systems linking membrane transit with posttranslational modification,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 194, no. 1, pp. 36–48, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  118. A. Marchler-Bauer, M. K. Derbyshire, N. R. Gonzales et al., “CDD: NCBI's conserved domain database,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. D222–D226, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  119. A. Mitchell, H.-Y. Chang, L. Daugherty et al., “The InterPro protein families database: the classification resource after 15 years,” Nucleic Acids Research, vol. 43, no. 1, pp. D213–D221, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  120. V. Krukenberg, K. Harding, M. Richter et al., “Candidatus desulfofervidus auxilii, a hydrogenotrophic sulfate-reducing bacterium involved in the thermophilic anaerobic oxidation of methane,” Environmental Microbiology, vol. 18, pp. 3073–3091, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  121. L. Shi, T. C. Squier, J. M. Zachara, and J. K. Fredrickson, “Respiration of metal (hydr)oxides by Shewanella and Geobacter: a key role for multihaem c-type cytochromes,” Molecular Microbiology, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 12–20, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  122. N. S. Malvankar and D. R. Lovley, “Microbial nanowires for bioenergy applications,” Current Opinion in Biotechnology, vol. 27, pp. 88–95, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  123. A.-E. Rotaru, T. L. Woodard, K. P. Nevin, and D. R. Lovley, “Link between capacity for current production and syntrophic growth in Geobacter species,” Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 6, article 744, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  124. A.-E. Rotaru, P. M. Shrestha, F. Liu et al., “Direct interspecies electron transfer between Geobacter metallireducens and Methanosarcina barkeri,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 80, no. 15, pp. 4599–4605, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  125. S. Scheller, H. Yu, G. L. Chadwick, S. E. McGlynn, and V. J. Orphan, “Artificial electron acceptors decouple archaeal methane oxidation from sulfate reduction,” Science, vol. 351, no. 6274, pp. 703–707, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  126. J. Milucka, F. Widdel, and S. Shima, “Immunological detection of enzymes for sulfate reduction in anaerobic methane-oxidizing consortia,” Environmental Microbiology, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 1561–1571, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  127. P. Cabello, M. D. Roldán, and C. Moreno-Vivián, “Nitrate reduction and the nitrogen cycle in archaea,” Microbiology, vol. 150, no. 11, pp. 3527–3546, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  128. R. M. Martinez-Espinosa, E. J. Dridge, M. J. Bonete et al., “Look on the positive side! The orientation, identification and bioenergetics of ‘Archaeal’ membrane-bound nitrate reductases,” FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 276, no. 2, pp. 129–139, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  129. S. de Vries, M. Momcilovic, M. J. F. Strampraad, J. P. Whitelegge, A. Baghai, and I. Schröder, “Adaptation to a high-tungsten environment: pyrobaculum aerophilum contains an active tungsten nitrate reductase,” Biochemistry, vol. 49, no. 45, pp. 9911–9921, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  130. M. Egger, O. Rasigraf, C. J. Sapart et al., “Iron-mediated anaerobic oxidation of methane in brackish coastal sediments,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 277–283, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  131. T. Treude, S. Krause, J. Maltby, A. W. Dale, R. Coffin, and L. J. Hamdan, “Sulfate reduction and methane oxidation activity below the sulfate-methane transition zone in Alaskan Beaufort Sea continental margin sediments: implications for deep sulfur cycling,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 144, pp. 217–237, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  132. N. Riedinger, M. J. Formolo, T. W. Lyons, S. Henkel, A. Beck, and S. Kasten, “An inorganic geochemical argument for coupled anaerobic oxidation of methane and iron reduction in marine sediments,” Geobiology, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 172–181, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  133. Y.-H. Chang, T.-W. Cheng, W.-J. Lai et al., “Microbial methane cycling in a terrestrial mud volcano in eastern Taiwan,” Environmental Microbiology, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 895–908, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  134. S. A. Crowe, S. Katsev, K. Leslie et al., “The methane cycle in ferruginous Lake Matano,” Geobiology, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 61–78, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  135. O. Sivan, M. Adler, A. Pearson et al., “Geochemical evidence for iron-mediated anaerobic oxidation of methane,” Limnology and Oceanography, vol. 56, no. 4, pp. 1536–1544, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  136. K. E. A. Segarra, C. Comerford, J. Slaughter, and S. B. Joye, “Impact of electron acceptor availability on the anaerobic oxidation of methane in coastal freshwater and brackish wetland sediments,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 115, pp. 15–30, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  137. V. Gupta, K. A. Smemo, J. B. Yavitt, D. Fowle, B. Branfireun, and N. Basiliko, “Stable isotopes reveal widespread anaerobic methane oxidation across latitude and peatland type,” Environmental Science and Technology, vol. 47, no. 15, pp. 8273–8279, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  138. O. Oni, T. Miyatake, S. Kasten et al., “Distinct microbial populations are tightly linked to the profile of dissolved iron in the methanic sediments of the Helgoland mud area, North Sea,” Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 6, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  139. E. J. Beal, C. H. House, and V. J. Orphan, “Manganese- and iron-dependent marine methane oxidation,” Science, vol. 325, no. 5937, pp. 184–187, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  140. M. W. Bowles, V. A. Samarkin, K. M. Bowles, and S. B. Joye, “Weak coupling between sulfate reduction and the anaerobic oxidation of methane in methane-rich seafloor sediments during ex situ incubation,” Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, vol. 75, no. 2, pp. 500–519, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  141. Y. Z. Lu, L. Fu, J. Ding, Z. Ding, N. Li, and R. J. Zeng, “Cr(VI) reduction coupled with anaerobic oxidation of methane in a laboratory reactor,” Water Research, vol. 102, pp. 445–452, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  142. K. F. Ettwig, B. Zhu, D. Speth, J. T. Keltjens, M. S. Jetten, and B. Kartal, “Archaea catalyze iron-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 113, no. 45, pp. 12792–12796, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  143. T. M. Flynn, R. A. Sanford, H. Ryu et al., “Functional microbial diversity explains groundwater chemistry in a pristine aquifer,” BMC Microbiology, vol. 13, no. 1, article no. 146, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  144. C. J. Schubert, F. Vazquez, T. Lösekann-Behrens, K. Knittel, M. Tonolla, and A. Boetius, “Evidence for anaerobic oxidation of methane in sediments of a freshwater system (Lago di Cadagno),” FEMS Microbiology Ecology, vol. 76, no. 1, pp. 26–38, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  145. K. E. A. Segarra, F. Schubotz, V. Samarkin, M. Y. Yoshinaga, K.-U. Hinrichs, and S. B. Joye, “High rates of anaerobic methane oxidation in freshwater wetlands reduce potential atmospheric methane emissions,” Nature Communications, vol. 6, article 7477, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  146. E. J. Beal, M. W. Claire, and C. H. House, “High rates of anaerobic methanotrophy at low sulfate concentrations with implications for past and present methane levels,” Geobiology, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 131–139, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  147. F. Kracke, I. Vassilev, and J. O. Krömer, “Microbial electron transport and energy conservation—the foundation for optimizing bioelectrochemical systems,” Frontiers in Microbiology, vol. 6, article 575, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  148. C. L. Reardon, A. C. Dohnalkova, P. Nachimuthu et al., “Role of outer-membrane cytochromes MtrC and OmcA in the biomineralization of ferrihydrite by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1,” Geobiology, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 56–68, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  149. L. Shi, B. Chen, Z. Wang et al., “Isolation of a high-affinity functional protein complex between OmcA and MtrC: two outer membrane decaheme c-type cytochromes of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1,” Journal of Bacteriology, vol. 188, no. 13, pp. 4705–4714, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  150. X. Qian, T. Mester, L. Morgado et al., “Biochemical characterization of purified OmcS, a c-type cytochrome required for insoluble Fe(III) reduction in Geobacter sulfurreducens,” Biochimica et Biophysica Acta—Bioenergetics, vol. 1807, no. 4, pp. 404–412, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  151. T. Mehta, M. V. Coppi, S. E. Childers, and D. R. Lovley, “Outer membrane c-type cytochromes required for Fe(III) and Mn(IV) oxide reduction in Geobacter sulfurreducens,” Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol. 71, no. 12, pp. 8634–8641, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  152. W. Blankenfeldt, A. P. Kuzin, T. Skarina et al., “Structure and function of the phenazine biosynthetic protein PhzF from Pseudomonas fluorescens,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 101, no. 47, pp. 16431–16436, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  153. J. F. Parsons, F. Song, L. Parsons, K. Calabrese, E. Eisenstein, and J. E. Ladner, “Structure and function of the phenazine biosynthesis protein PhzF from Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79,” Biochemistry, vol. 43, no. 39, pp. 12427–12435, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  154. T. Hiratsuka, K. Furihata, J. Ishikawa et al., “An alternative menaquinone biosynthetic pathway operating in microorganisms,” Science, vol. 321, no. 5896, pp. 1670–1673, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  155. M. Tietze, A. Beuchle, I. Lamla et al., “Redox potentials of methanophenazine and CoB-S-S-CoM, factors involved in electron transport in methanogenic archaea,” ChemBioChem, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 333–335, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  156. Q. H. Tran and G. Unden, “Changes in the proton potential and the cellular energetics of Escherichia coli during growth by aerobic and anaerobic respiration or by fermentation,” European Journal of Biochemistry, vol. 251, no. 1-2, pp. 538–543, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  157. I. Callebaut, D. Gilgès, I. Vigon, and J.-P. Mornon, “HYR, an extracellular module involved in cellular adhesion and related to the immunoglobulin-like fold,” Protein Science, vol. 9, no. 7, pp. 1382–1390, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  158. H. J. Gilbert, “Cellulosomes: microbial nanomachines that display plasticity in quaternary structure,” Molecular Microbiology, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 1568–1576, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  159. A. Peer, S. P. Smith, E. A. Bayer, R. Lamed, and I. Borovok, “Noncellulosomal cohesin- and dockerin-like modules in the three domains of life,” FEMS Microbiology Letters, vol. 291, no. 1, pp. 1–16, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  160. M. Wagner, “Microbiology: conductive consortia,” Nature, vol. 526, no. 7574, pp. 513–514, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus