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Archaea
Volume 2018, Article ID 7819840, 12 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/7819840
Research Article

Characterization of Microbial Communities in Pilot-Scale Constructed Wetlands with Salicornia for Treatment of Marine Aquaculture Effluents

1Key Laboratory of Experimental Marine Biology, Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071, China
2Laboratory for Marine Fisheries Science and Food Production Processes, Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Qingdao 266235, China
3University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039, China
4Faculty of Biosciences, Fisheries and Economics, The Arctic University of Norway, 9037 Tromsø, Norway
5School of Marine Science and Environmental Engineering, Dalian Ocean University, Dalian 116023, China
6Fisheries College, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266001, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Ying Liu; nc.ude.uold@uilgniy

Received 23 January 2018; Revised 15 March 2018; Accepted 28 March 2018; Published 29 April 2018

Academic Editor: Guangbin Li

Copyright © 2018 Xiaona Ma et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Microorganisms play an essential role in the performance of constructed wetlands (CWs) for wastewater treatment. However, there has been limited discussion on the characteristics of microbial communities in CWs for treatment of effluents from marine recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS). This study is aimed at characterizing the microbial communities of pilot-scale CWs with Salicornia bigelovii for treatment of saline wastewater from a land-based Atlantic salmon RAS plant located in Northern China. Illumina high-throughput sequencing was employed to identify the profile of microbial communities of three CWs receiving wastewater under different total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentrations. Results of this study showed remarkable spatial variations in diversity and composition of microbial communities between roots and substrates in three CWs, with distinct response to different TAN concentrations. In particular, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes were predominant in roots, while Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, and Bacteroidetes were prevalent in substrates. Moreover, redundancy analysis indicated that specific functional genera, such as Nitrosopumilus, Vibrio, Pseudoalteromonas, Nitrospina, and Planctomyces, played key roles in the removal of nitrogen/phosphorus pollutants and growth of wetland plants. From a microorganism perspective, the findings of this study could contribute to better understanding of contaminants’ removal mechanism and improved management of CWs for treatment of effluents from land-based marine aquaculture.