Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Anatomy Research International
Volume 2011 (2011), Article ID 191509, 22 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2011/191509
Review Article

Comparative Triceps Surae Morphology in Primates: A Review

1Department of Biomedical Sciences, West Virginia School of Osteopathic Medicine, Lewisburg, WV 24901, USA
2Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA

Received 16 January 2011; Accepted 28 April 2011

Academic Editor: Adam D. Sylvester

Copyright © 2011 Jandy B. Hanna and Daniel Schmitt. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. C. Nussbaum, Aristotle’s De Motu Animalium, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, USA, 1978.
  2. G. A. Borelli, On the Movement of Animals, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1989.
  3. E. Muybridge, in Animals in Motion, L. S. Brown, Ed., Dover Publications, New York, NY, USA, 1957.
  4. A. Keith, “The extent to which the posterior segments of the body have been transmuted and suppressed in the evolution of man and allied primates,” Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, vol. 37, pp. 18–40, 1903. View at Google Scholar
  5. F. W. Jones, Arboreal Man, Hafner Press, New York, NY, USA, 1916.
  6. P. M. De la Croix , “The evolution of locomotion in mammals,” Journal of Mammalogy, vol. 17, pp. 51–54, 1936. View at Google Scholar
  7. P. M. De la Croix, “Phylogenie de la locomotion prebipede de l'homme,” Revue de Pathologie Comparée, vol. 22, no. 326, 1932. View at Google Scholar
  8. M. Hildebrand, “Symmetrical gaits of primates,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 26, pp. 119–130, 1967. View at Google Scholar
  9. J. Rollinson and R. D. Martin, “Comparative aspects of primate locomotion with special reference to arboreal cercopithecines,” Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, vol. 48, pp. 377–427, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  10. J. A. Vilensky, “Primate quadrupedalism: how and why does it differ from that of typical quadrupeds?” Brain, Behavior and Evolution, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 357–364, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. J. A. Vilensky and S. G. Larson, “Primate locomotion: utilization and control f symmetrical gaits,” Annual Review of Anthropology, vol. 18, pp. 17–35, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  12. M. Cartmill, P. Lemelin, and D. Schmitt, “Support polygons and symmetrical gaits in mammals,” Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 136, no. 3, pp. 401–420, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. Cartmill, P. Lemelin, and D. Schmitt, “Understanding the adaptive value of diagonal-sequence gaits in primates: a comment on Shapiro and Raichlen, 2005,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 133, no. 2, pp. 822–827, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  14. L. J. Shapiro and D. A. Raichlen, “Lateral sequence walking in infant Papio cynocephalus: implications for the evolution of diagonal sequence walking in primates,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 126, no. 2, pp. 205–213, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  15. L. J. Shapiro and D. A. Raichlen, “A response to Cartmill et al. : primate gaits and arboreal stability,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 133, no. 2, pp. 825–827, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. I. J. Wallace and B. Demes, “Symmetrical gaits of Cebus apella: implications for the functional significance of diagonal sequence gait in primates,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 783–794, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  17. B. Demes, W. L. Jungers, and U. Nieschalk, “Size- and speed-related aspects of quadrupedal walking in slender and slow lorises,” in Gravity, Posture and Locomotion in Primates, F. K. Jouffroy, M. H. Stack, and C. Niemitz, Eds., pp. 175–198, Editrice Il Sedicesimo, Florence, Italy, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  18. H. Preuschoft and M. M. Gunther, “Biomechanics and body shape in primates compared with horses,” Zeitsscrif fur Morphologie und Anthropologie, vol. 80, pp. 149–165, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  19. D. A. Raichlen, “Convergence of forelimb and hindlimb natural pendular period in baboons (Papio cynocephalus) and its implication for the evolution of primate quadrupedalism,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 46, no. 6, pp. 719–738, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  20. D. Schmitt, M. Cartmill, T. M. Griffin, J. B. Hanna, and P. Lemelin, “Adaptive value of ambling gaits in primates and other mammals,” Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 209, no. 11, pp. 2042–2049, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  21. M. C. O'Neill, The structural basis of locomotor cost: gait, mechanics and limb design in ringtailed lemurs (Lemur catta), Ph.D. thesis, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md, USA, 2008.
  22. M. O’Neill and D. Schmitt, “The gaits of a primate: center of mass mechanics in walking, cantering, and galloping ringtailed lemurs, Lemur catta,” The Journal of Experimental Biology. In review.
  23. T. Kimura, M. Okada, and H. Ishida, “Kinesiological characteristics of primate walking: its significance in human walking,” in Environment, Behavior, and Morphology: Dynamic Interactions in Primates, M. E. Morbeck, H. Preuschoft, and N. Gomberg, Eds., pp. 297–311, Gustav Fischer, New York, NY, USA, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  24. B. Demes, S. G. Larson, J. T. Stern, W. L. Jungers, A. R. Biknevicius, and D. Schmitt, “The kinetics of primate quadrupedalism: “hindlimb drive” reconsidered,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 26, pp. 353–374, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  25. D. Schmitt and P. Lemelin, “Origins of primate locomotion: gait mechanics of the woolly opossum,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 118, no. 3, pp. 231–238, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  26. D. Schmitt and J. B. Hanna, “Substrate alters forelimb to hindlimb peak force ratios in primates,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 237–252, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. S. G. Larson, D. Schmitt, P. Lemelin, and M. W. Hamrick, “Uniqueness of primate forelimb posture during quadrupedal locomotion,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 112, no. 1, pp. 87–101, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. S. G. Larson, D. Schmitt, P. Lemelin, and M. W. Hamrick, “Limb excursion during quadrupedal walking: how do primates compare to other mammals?” Journal of Zoology, vol. 255, no. 3, pp. 353–365, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. D. Schmitt, “Compliant walking in primates,” Journal of Zoology London, vol. 248, no. 2, pp. 149–160, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. E. Larney and S. G. Larson, “Compliant walking in primates: elbow and knee yield in primates compared to other mammals,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 125, no. 1, pp. 42–50, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  31. J. T. Stern Jr., “Before bipedality,” Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, vol. 19, pp. 59–68, 1976. View at Google Scholar
  32. T. R. Reynolds, “Stresses on the limbs of quadrupedal primates,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 67, no. 4, pp. 351–362, 1985. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. G. Larson, “Unique aspects of quadrupedal locomotion in nonhuman primates,” in Primate Locomotion: Recent Advances, E Strasser, A. Rosenberger, H. McHenry, and J. Fleagle, Eds., pp. 157–274, Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  34. M. Cartmill, D. Schmitt, and P. Lemelin, “Duty factors and lateral sequence gaits in primates and chameleons,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 38, supplement, 73 pages, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  35. M. Cartmill, “Arboreal adaptations and the origin of the order primates,” in The Functional and Evolutionary Biology of Primates, R. H. Tuttle, Ed., pp. 97–122, Aldine Press, Chicago, Ill, USA, 1972. View at Google Scholar
  36. M. Cartmill, “New views on primate origins,” Evolutionary Anthropology, vol. 1, no. 3, pp. 105–111, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. P. Lemelin, “Morphological correlates of substrate use in didelphid marsupials: implications for primate origins,” Journal of Zoology, vol. 247, no. 2, pp. 165–175, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. P. Lemelin and D. Schmitt, “The origins of grasping and locomotor adaptations in primates: comparative and experimental approaches using an opossum model,” in Primate Origins: Adaptations and Evolution, M. Ravosa and M. Dagosto, Eds., pp. 329–380, Kluwer Academic Publishers, New York, NY, USA, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  39. D. Schmitt, “Insights into the evolution of human bipedalism from experimental studies of humans and other primates,” Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 206, no. 9, pp. 1437–1448, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. D. Schmitt, “Primate locomotor evolution,” in Primate Neuroethology, M. E. Platt and A. A. Ghazar, Eds., pp. 31–64, Oxford University Press, New York, NY, USA, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  41. D. Schmitt, A kinematic and kinetic analysis of forelimb use during arboreal and terrestrial quadrupedalism in Old World monkeys, Ph.D. thesis, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY, USA, 1995.
  42. J. B. Hanna, J. D. Polk, and D. Schmitt, “Forelimb and hindlimb forces in walking and galloping primates,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 130, no. 4, pp. 529–535, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  43. B. Demes, J. G. Fleagle, and W. L. Jungers, “Takeoff and landing forces of leaping strepsirhine primates,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 279–292, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  44. E. Hirasaki, S. Matano, Y. Nakano, and H. Ishida, “Vertical climbing in Ateles geoffroyi and Macaca fuscata and its comparative neurological background,” in Topics in Primatology, S. Matano, R. H. Tuttle, H. Ishida, and M. Goodman, Eds., pp. 167–176, University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, Japan, 1992. View at Google Scholar
  45. E. Hirasaki, H. Kumakura, and S. Matano, “Kinesiological characteristics of vertical climbing in Ateles geoffroyi and Macaca fuscata,” Folia Primatologica, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 148–156, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. J. B. Hanna and D. Schmitt, “Interpreting the role of climbing in primate locomotor evolution: are the biomechanics of climbing influenced by habitual substrate use and anatomy?” International Journal of Primatology, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 430–444, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  47. J. D. Polk, B. Demes, W. L. Jungers, A. R. Biknevicius, R. E. Heinrich, and J. A. Runestad, “A comparison of primate, carnivoran and rodent limb bone cross-sectional properties: are primates really unique?” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 297–325, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  48. J. R. Napier, “Prehensility and opposability in the hands of primates,” Symposia of the Zoological Society of London, vol. 5, pp. 115–132, 1961. View at Google Scholar
  49. T. I. Grand, “A mechanical interpretation of terminal branch feeding,” Journal of Mammalogy, vol. 53, pp. 198–201, 1972. View at Google Scholar
  50. M. Cartmill, “Rethinking primate origins,” Science, vol. 184, no. 4135, pp. 436–443, 1974. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. M. Cartmill, “Pads and claws in arboreal locomotion,” in Primate Locomotion, F. A. Jenkins, Ed., pp. 45–83, Academic Press, New York, NY, USA, 1974. View at Google Scholar
  52. F. K. Jouffroy, “Osteology and myology of the lemuriform postcranial skeleton,” in Lemur Biology, I. Tattersall and R. W. Sussman, Eds., pp. 149–192, Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  53. P. Lemelin and B. W. Grafton, “Grasping performance in Saguinus midas and the evolution of hand prehensility in primates,” in Primate Locomotion: Recent Advances, E. Strasser, J. Fleagle, A. Rosenberger, and H. McHenry, Eds., pp. 131–144, Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  54. J. G. Fleagle, “Locomotor behavior and muscular anatomy of sympatric Malaysian leaf monkeys (Presbytis obscura and Presbytis melalophos),” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 46, no. 2, pp. 297–307, 1977. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. J. E. McArdle, “Functional morphology of the hip and thigh of the Lorisiformes,” in Contributions to Primatology, F. S. Szalay, Ed., vol. 17, Karger Press, New York, NY, USA, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  56. J. G. Fleagle and D. J. Meldrum, “Locomotor behavior and skeletal morphology of two sympatric pitheciine monkeys, Pithecia pithecia and Chiropotes satanas,” American Journal of Primatology, vol. 16, pp. 227–249, 1988. View at Google Scholar
  57. R. L. Anemone, “The VCL hypothesis revisited: patterns of femoral morphology among quadrupedal and saltatorial prosimian primates,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 83, no. 3, pp. 373–393, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. J. R. Connour, K. Glander, and F. Vincent, “Postcranial adaptations for leaping in primates,” Journal of Zoology, vol. 251, no. 1, pp. 79–103, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. T. M. Ryan and R. A. Ketcham, “Angular orientation of trabecular bone in the femoral head and its relationship to hip joint loads in leaping primates,” Journal of Morphology, vol. 265, no. 3, pp. 249–263, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  60. R. Susman, J. T. J. Stern, and W. L. Jungers, “Arboreality and bipedality in the hadar hominids,” Folia Primatologica, vol. 43, no. 2-3, pp. 113–156, 1984. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. J. T. Stern, “Climbing to the top: a personal memoir of Australopithecus afarensis,” Evolutionary Anthropology, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 113–133, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. C. Owen Lovejoy, G. Suwa, L. Spurlock, B. Asfaw, and T. D. White, “The pelvis and femur of ardipithecus ramidus: the emergence of upright walking,” Science, vol. 326, no. 5949, pp. 71–76, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. K. Kimura and S. Takai, “Comparative anatomical studies of the extremities of the crab-eating monkey based on the relative muscle weight,” The Anthropological Society of Nippon, vol. 45, no. 2, pp. 80–90, 1970. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. J. T. Stern Jr., “Functional myology of the hip and thigh of cebid monkeys and its implications for the evolution of erect posture,” Bibliotecha Primatology, vol. 14, pp. 1–318, 1971. View at Google Scholar
  65. A. K. Vangor, Electromyography of gait in non-human primates and its significance for the evolution of bipedality, Ph.D. thesis, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY, USA, 1980.
  66. A. K. Vangor and J. P. Wells, “Muscle recruitment and the evolution of bipedality: evidence from telemetered electromyography of the spider, woolly, and patas monkeys,” Annales des Sciences Naturelles Zoologique Paris, vol. 5, pp. 125–135, 1983. View at Google Scholar
  67. J. Kataoka, “Comparative studies on muscle structure of the m. triceps surae and m. plantaris in man and monkey,” Journal of the Anthropological Society of Nippon, vol. 47, no. 6, pp. 851–861, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  68. E. Glaesmer, “Untersuchung ueber die flexorengruppe am unterschekel und fuβ der saeugetiere,” Morphologie Jahrbuch, vol. 38, pp. 36–90, 1908. View at Google Scholar
  69. E. Glaesmer, “Die beugumuskeln am unterschenkel und fub bei insectivoran, marsupialiern, edentaten, prosimiae und simiae,” Morphologie Jahrbuch, vol. 41, pp. 147–336, 1910. View at Google Scholar
  70. H. Frey, “Der musculus triceps surae in der primatenreihe,” Morphologie Jahrbuch, vol. 47, pp. 1–191, 1913. View at Google Scholar
  71. J. H. Langdon, “Variations in cruropedal musculature,” International Journal of Primatology, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 575–606, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. S. J. Houtz and F. P. Walsh, “Electromyographic analysis of the functions of the muscles acting on the ankle during weightbearing with special reference to the triceps surae,” The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, vol. 41, pp. 1469–1481, 1959. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. A. Zihlman and L. Brunker, “Hominid bipedalism: then and now,” Yearbook of Physical Anthropology, vol. 22, pp. 132–162, 1979. View at Google Scholar
  74. F. C. Anderson and M. G. Pandy, “Storage and utilization of elastic strain energy during jumping,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 26, no. 12, pp. 1413–1427, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. F. E. Zajac, R. R. Neptune, and S. A. Kautz, “Biomechanics and muscle coordination of human walking: part II: lessons from dynamical simulations and clinical implications,” Gait and Posture, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1–17, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. R. R. Neptune, F. E. Zajac, and S. A. Kautz, “Muscle force redistributes segmental power for body progression during walking,” Gait and Posture, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 194–205, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  77. B. Walmsley, J. A. Hodgson, and R. E. Burke, “Forces produced by medial gastrocnemius and soleus muscles during locomotion in freely moving cats,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 41, no. 5, pp. 1203–1216, 1978. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  78. W. Herzog and T. R. Leonard, “Soleus forces and soleus force potential during unrestrained cat locomotion,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 271–279, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. B. I. Prilutsky, W. Herzog, and T. L. Allinger, “Mechanical power and work of cat soleus, gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles during locomotion: possible functional significance of muscle design and force patterns,” The Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 199, pp. 801–814, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  80. C. G. Hartman and W. L. Straus Jr., The Anatomy of the Rhesus Monkey, Hafner Publishing Company, New York, NY, USA, 1933.
  81. M. A. Schön, The Musculature System of the Red Howling Monkey, Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, DC, USA, 1968.
  82. B. A. Sigmon and D. L. Farslow, “The primate hindlimb,” in Comparative Primate Biology, Vol. 1: Systematics, Evolution, and Anatomy, D. R. Swindler and J. Erwin, Eds., vol. 1, pp. 671–718, Alan R. Liss, New York, NY, USA, 1986. View at Google Scholar
  83. S. Standring, Gray's Anatomy, Elsevier, New York, NY, USA, 39th edition, 2005.
  84. R. A. Bergman, S. A. Thomspon, A. K. Afifi, and F. A. Saadeh, Compendium if Human Anatomic Variation, Urban & Schwarzenberg, Baltimore, Md, USA, 1988.
  85. O. J. Lewis, “The phylogeny of the crural and pedal flexor musculature,” Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, vol. 138, pp. 77–109, 1962. View at Google Scholar
  86. O. J. Lewis, “The monotreme cruro-pedal flexor musculature,” Journal of Anatomy London, vol. 97, no. 1, pp. 55–63, 1963. View at Google Scholar
  87. O. J. Lewis, “The evolution of the long flexor muscle of the leg and foot,” Review of General and Experimental Zoology, vol. 1, pp. 165–185, 1964. View at Google Scholar
  88. E. Loth, “Die aponeurosis plantaris in der primatenreihe,” Gegenbaurs Morphologisches Jahrbuch, vol. 38, pp. 194–321, 1908. View at Google Scholar
  89. C. Argot, “Functional, adaptive analysis of the hindlimb anatomy of extant marsupials and the paleobiology of the Paleocene marsupials Mayulestes ferox and Pucadelphys andinus,” Journal of Morphology, vol. 253, no. 1, pp. 76–108, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  90. R. E. Fisher, B. Adrian, C. Elrod, and M. Hicks, “The phylogeny of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens): evidence from the hindlimb,” Journal of Anatomy, vol. 213, no. 5, pp. 607–628, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  91. R. E. Fisher, K. M. Scott, and B. Adrian, “Hind limb myology of the common hippopotamus, Hippopotamus amphibius (Artiodactyla: Hippopotamidae),” Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, vol. 158, no. 3, pp. 661–682, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. C. F. Sonntag, “On the myology and classification of the wombat, koala, and phalangers,” Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pp. 863–896, 1922. View at Google Scholar
  93. A. Prejzner-Morawska and M. Urbanowicz, “Morphology of some of the lower limb muscles in primates,” in Primate Evolutionary Biology, A. B. Chiarelli and R. S. Corruccini, Eds., pp. 60–67, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  94. H. H. Woollard, “The anatomy of Tarsius spectrum,” Proceedings of the Zoological Society, vol. 70, pp. 1071–1184, 1925. View at Google Scholar
  95. J. Murie and S. G. Mivart, “On the anatomy of the Lemuroidea,” Transactions of the Zoological Society, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 1–113, 1866. View at Google Scholar
  96. E. L. Patterson, “The myology of Rhinopithecus roxellanae and Cynopithecus niger,” Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, pp. 31–104, 1942. View at Google Scholar
  97. D. R. Swindler and C. D. Wood, An Atlas of Primate Gross Anatomy: Baboon, Chimpanzee, and Man, University of Washington Press, Seattle, Wash, 1973.
  98. J. L. Stevens, V. R. Edgerton, and S. Mitton, “Gross anatomy of the hindlimb skeletal system of the Galago senegalensis,” Primates, vol. 12, no. 3-4, pp. 313–321, 1972. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  99. S. Babcock, Hindlimb Muscle Morphology and Mechanical Adaptation in Galagos: An Analysis of Scale, Function, and Phylogeny, Ph.D. thesis, Duke University, Durham, NC, USA, 1993.
  100. C. Gans and W. J. Bock, “The functional significance of muscle architecture: a theoretical analysis,” Ergebn Anat Entwickl-Gesch, vol. 38, pp. 115–142, 1965. View at Google Scholar
  101. C. Gans, “Fiber architecture and muscle function,” Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews, vol. 10, pp. 160–207, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  102. R. D. Sacks and R. R. Roy, “Architecture of the hind limb muscles of cats: functional significance,” Journal of Morphology, vol. 173, no. 2, pp. 185–195, 1982. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  103. F. Anapol and K. Barry, “Fiber architecture of the extensors of the hindlimb in semiterrestrial and arboreal guenons,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 99, no. 3, pp. 429–447, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  104. M. H. Brooke and K. K. Kaiser, “Muscle fiber types: how many and what kind?” Archives of Neurology, vol. 23, no. 4, pp. 369–379, 1970. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  105. D. F. Goldspink, “Growth of muscle,” in Developmental and Specialization of Skeletal Muscle, D. F. Goldspink, Ed., pp. 19–36, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  106. K. G. Braund, K. A. Amling, J. R. Mehta, J. E. Steiss, and C. Scholz, “Histochemical and morphometric study of fiber types in ten skeletal muscles of healthy young adult cats,” American Journal of Veterinary Research, vol. 56, no. 3, pp. 349–357, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  107. F. K. Jouffroy, J. T. Stern Jr., M. F. Medina, and S. G. Larson, “Function and cytochemical characteristics of postural limb muscles of the rhesus monkey: a telemetered EMG and immunofluorescence study,” Folia Primatologica, vol. 70, no. 5, pp. 235–253, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  108. C. Cordonnier, L. Stevens, F. Picquet, and Y. Mounier, “Structure-function relationship of soleus muscle fibres from the rhesus monkey,” Pflügers Archiv European Journal of Physiology, vol. 430, pp. 19–25, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  109. M. A. Ariano, R. B. Armstrong, and V. R. Edgerton, “Hindlimb muscle fiber populations of five mammals,” Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 51–55, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  110. S. E. Peters, R. Mulkey, S. A. Rasmussen, and G. E. Goslow Jr, “Motor units of the primary ankle extensor muscles of the opossum (Didelphis virginiana): functional properties and fiber types,” Journal of Morphology, vol. 181, no. 3, pp. 305–317, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  111. L. Acosta and R. R. Roy, “Fiber-type composition of selected hindlimb muscles of a primate (Cynomolgus monkey),” Anatomical Record, vol. 218, no. 2, pp. 136–141, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  112. V. R. Edgerton, R. J. Barnard, J. B. Peter, A. Maier, and D. R. Simpson, “Properties of immobilized hind-limb muscles of the Galago senegalensis,” Experimental Neurology, vol. 46, pp. 115–131, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  113. K. M. Van De Graaff, E. C. Frederick, R. G. Williamson, and G. E. Goslow Jr, “Motor units and fiber types of primary ankle extensors of the skunk (Mephitis mephitis),” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 40, no. 6, pp. 1424–1431, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  114. T. J. Burkholder, B. Fingado, S. Baron, and R. L. Lieber, “Relationship between muscle fiber types and sizes and muscle architectural properties in the mouse hindlimb,” Journal of Morphology, vol. 221, no. 2, pp. 177–190, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  115. R. B. Armstrong, “Properties and distributions of the fibre types in the locomotory muscles of mammals,” in Comparative Physiology: Primitive Mammals, k. Schmidt-Nielsen,, L. Bolis, and C. R. Taylor, Eds., pp. 243–254, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  116. R. B. Armstrong, C. W. Saubert, H. J. Seeherman, and C. R. Taylor, “Distribution of fiber types in locomotory muscles of dogs,” American Journal of Anatomy, vol. 163, no. 1, pp. 87–98, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  117. D. Kernall, “Muscle regionalization,” Canadian Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 23, pp. 1–22, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  118. L. C. Wang and D. Kernall, “Fibre type regionalization in lower hindlimb muscles of rabbit, rat and mouse: a comparative study,” Journal of Anatomy, vol. 199, pp. 631–643, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  119. J. Joseph, Man’s Posture: Electromyographic Studies, Charles C Thomas, Springfield, Mass, USA, 1960.
  120. R. M. Alexander, A. S. Jayes, M. O. Maloiy, and E. M. Wathuta, “Allometry of the leg muscles of mammals,” Journal of Zoology London, vol. 194, pp. 539–552, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  121. C. M. Pollock and R. E. Shadwick, “Allometry of muscle, tendon, and elastic energy storage capacity in mammals,” American Journal of Physiology, vol. 266, no. 3, pp. R1022–R1031, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  122. R. C. Payne, R. H. Crompton, K. Isler et al., “Morphological analysis of the hindlimb in apes and humans. I. Muscle architecture,” Journal of Anatomy, vol. 208, no. 6, pp. 709–724, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  123. E. E. Vereecke, K. D'Août, R. Payne, and P. Aerts, “Functional analysis of the foot and ankle myology of gibbons and bonobos,” Journal of Anatomy, vol. 206, no. 5, pp. 453–476, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  124. S. K. S. Thorpe, R. H. Crompton, M. M. Guenther, R. F. Ker, and R. M. Alexander, “Dimensions and moment arms of the hind- and forelimb muscles of common chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes),” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 110, pp. 179–199, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  125. K. J. Carlson, “Muscle architecture of the common chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes): perspectives for investigating chimpanzee behavior,” Primates, vol. 47, no. 3, pp. 218–229, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  126. N. C. Tappen, “Relative weights of some functionally important muscles of the thigh, hip and leg in a gibbon and in man,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 415–420, 1955. View at Google Scholar
  127. J. Ito, N. Shiraishi, M. Umino, T. Kimura, and H. Akita, “Morphological evaluation of the baboon hind limb muscles based on relative weight,” Okajimas Folia Anatomica Japonica, vol. 77, no. 5, pp. 161–166, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  128. T. I. Grand, “The functional anatomy of the lower limb of the howler monkey (Alouatta caraya),” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 28, pp. 163–182, 1968. View at Google Scholar
  129. B. Demes, J. G. Fleagle, and P. Lemelin, “Myological correlates of prosimian leaping,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 34, no. 4, pp. 385–399, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  130. T. I. Grand, “The functional anatomy of the ankle and foot of the slow loris (Nycticebus coucang),” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 26, pp. 207–218, 1967. View at Google Scholar
  131. R. B. Armstrong and R. O. Phelps, “Muscle fiber type composition of the rat hindlimb,” American Journal of Anatomy, vol. 171, no. 3, pp. 259–272, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  132. S. B. Williams, R. C. Payne, and A. M. Wilson, “Functional specialisation of the pelvic limb of the hare (Lepus europeus),” Journal of Anatomy, vol. 210, no. 4, pp. 472–490, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  133. R. C. Payne, J. R. Hutchinson, J. J. Robilliard, N. C. Smith, and A. M. Wilson, “Functional specialisation of pelvic limb anatomy in horses (Equus caballus),” Journal of Anatomy, vol. 206, no. 6, pp. 557–574, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  134. C. E. Miller, The anatomy and biomechanics of elephant limbs and feet, Ph.D. thesis, The Veterinary College, University of London, London, UK, 2009.
  135. C. F. Sonntag, “On the anatomy, physiology, and pathology of the orang-outan,” Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, vol. 24, no. 24, pp. 349–450, 1924. View at Google Scholar
  136. F. J. Shepherd, “Short notes on the myology of the American black bear,” Proceedings of the Royal Society London, pp. 103–117, 1895. View at Google Scholar
  137. E. A. Kelley, “Notes on the myology of Ursus maritimus,” Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, vol. 40, pp. 141–154, 1888. View at Google Scholar
  138. L. J. Ray, “The myology of the inferior extremity of the Malay bear, Ursus malayanus,” Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London, vol. 119, pp. 121–132, 1949. View at Google Scholar
  139. G. E. Weissengruber and G. Forstenpointner, “Musculature of the crus and pes of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana): insight into semiplantigrade limb architecture,” Anatomy and Embryology, vol. 208, no. 6, pp. 451–461, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  140. B. Campbell, The comparative myology of the hippopotamus, pig, tapir, Ph.D. thesis, Johns Hopkins Unversity Medical School, Baltimore, Md, USA, 1935.
  141. D. M. Doran, “The ontogeny of chimpanzee and pygmy chimpanzee locomotor behavior: a case study of paedomorphism and its behavioral correlates,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 139–157, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  142. J. E. Turnquist and J. P. Wells, “Ontogeny of locomotion in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta): I. Early postnatal ontogeny of the musculoskeletal system,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 26, no. 5-6, pp. 487–499, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  143. D. M. Doran, “Ontogeny of locomotion in mountain gorillas and chimpanzees,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 323–344, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  144. J. P. Wells and J. E. Turnquist, “Ontogeny of locomotion in rhesus macaques (macaca mulatta): II. Postural and locomotor behavior and habitat use in a free-ranging colony,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 115, no. 1, pp. 80–94, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  145. W. C. O. Hill, Primates: Comparative Anatomy and Taxonomy. Cebidae Part B, John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, USA, 1962.
  146. B. C. A. Windle, “Notes on the mycology of Midas rosalia with remarks on the muscular system in apes,” Proceedings of the Birmingham Philosophical Society, vol. 5, pp. 152–166, 1886. View at Google Scholar
  147. I. Engberg and A. Lundgren, “An electromyographic analysis of muscular activity in the hindlimb of the cat during unrestrained locomotion,” Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, vol. 75, pp. 614–630, 1969. View at Google Scholar
  148. M. Tokuriki, “Electromyographic and joint-mechanical studies in quadrupedal locomotion. I. Walk,” The Japanese Journal of Veterinary Science, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 433–446, 1973. View at Google Scholar
  149. S. Rasmussen, A. K. Chan, and G. E. Goslow Jr., “The cat step cycle: electromyographic patterns for hindlimb muscles during posture and unrestrained locomotion,” Journal of Morphology, vol. 155, no. 3, pp. 253–269, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  150. G. E. Goslow Jr., H. J. Seeherman, C. R. Taylor, M. N. McCutchin, and N. C. Heglund, “Electrical activity and relative length changes of dog limb muscles as a function of speed and gait,” Journal of Experimental Biology, vol. 94, pp. 15–42, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  151. L. D. Abraham and G. E. Loeb, “The distal hindlimb musculature of the cat,” Experimental Brain Research, vol. 58, no. 3, pp. 580–593, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  152. P. F. Gardiner and A. E. Olha, “Contractile and electromyographic characteristics of rat plantaris motor unit types during fatigue in situ,” Journal of Physiology, vol. 385, pp. 13–34, 1987. View at Google Scholar
  153. K. R. Gardiner, P. F. Gardiner, and V. R. Edgerton, “Guinea pig soleus and gastrocnemius electromyograms at varying speeds, grades, and loads,” Journal of Applied Physiology, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 451–457, 1982. View at Google Scholar
  154. J. A. Hodgson, S. Wichayanuparp, M. R. Recktenwald et al., “Circadian force and EMG activity in hindlimb muscles of rhesus monkeys,” Journal of Neurophysiology, vol. 86, no. 3, pp. 1430–1444, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  155. A. L. O'Connell, “Electromyographic study of certain leg muscles during movements of the free foot and during standing,” American Journal of Physical Medicine, vol. 37, no. 6, pp. 289–301, 1958. View at Google Scholar
  156. C. K. Battye and J. Joseph, “An investigation by telementering of the activity of some muscles in walking,” Medical & Biological Engineering, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 125–135, 1966. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  157. J. V. Basmajian, Muscles Alive: Their Functions Revealed By Electromyography, The Williams and Wilkins Company, Baltimore, Md, USA, 2nd edition, 1967.
  158. D. H. Sutherland, “An electromyographic study of the plantar flexors of the ankle in normal walking on the level,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 66–71, 1966. View at Google Scholar
  159. W. L. Hylander and K. R. Johnson, “The relationship between masseter force and masseter electromyogram during mastication in the monkey Macaca fascicularis,” Archives of Oral Biology, vol. 34, no. 9, pp. 713–722, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  160. W. L. Hylander and K. R. Johnson, “Modelling relative masseter force from surface electromyograms during mastication in non-human primates,” Archives of Oral Biology, vol. 38, no. 3, pp. 233–240, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  161. R. R. Neptune, S. A. Kautz, and F. E. Zajac, “Contributions of the individual ankle plantar flexors to support, forward progression and swing initiation during walking,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 1387–1398, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  162. M. Q. Liu, F. C. Anderson, M. G. Pandy, and S. L. Delp, “Muscles that support the body also modulate forward progression during walking,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 39, no. 14, pp. 2623–2630, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  163. W. T. Liberson, “Biomechanics of gait: a method of study,” Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, vol. 46, pp. 37–48, 1965. View at Google Scholar
  164. R. A. Mann and J. Hagy, “Biomechanics of walking, running, and sprinting,” American Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 8, no. 5, pp. 345–350, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  165. J. Nilsson, A. Thorstensson, and J. Halbertsma, “Changes in leg movements and muscle activity with speed of locomotion and mode of progression in humans,” Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, vol. 123, pp. 457–475, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  166. P. R. Cavanagh and M. A. Lafortune, “Ground reaction forces in distance running,” Journal of Biomechanics, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 397–406, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  167. D. I. Miller, “Ground reaction forces in distance running,” in Biomechanics of Distance Running, P. Cavanagh, Ed., pp. 203–224, Human Kinetics Books, Champaign, Ill, USA, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  168. G. A. Valiant, “Transmission and attenuation of heel-strike accelerations,” in Biomechanics of Distance Running, P. Cavanagh, Ed., pp. 225–248, Human Kinetics Books, Champaign, Ill, USA, 1990. View at Google Scholar
  169. D. E. Lieberman, M. Venkadesan, W. A. Werbel et al., “Foot strike patterns and collision forces in habitually barefoot versus shod runners,” Nature, vol. 463, no. 7280, pp. 531–535, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  170. H. Ishida, T. Kimura, and M. Okada, “Patterns of bipedal walking in anthropoid primates,” in Proceedings of the Fifth Congress of the International Primatological Society, S. Kondo, M. Kawai, A. Ehara, and S. Kawamura, Eds., pp. 287–301, Japan Science Press, Tokyo, Japan, 1974. View at Google Scholar
  171. H. Ishida, M. Okada, R. H. Tuttle, and T. Kimura, “Activities of hindlimb muscles in bipedal gibbons,” in Recent Advances in Primatology, D. J. Chivers and K. A. Joysey, Eds., vol. 3 of Evolution, pp. 459–462, Academic Press, London, UK, 1978. View at Google Scholar
  172. D. Schmitt and S. G. Larson, “Heel contact as a function of substrate type and speed in primates,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 39–50, 1995. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  173. H. Ishida, T. Kimura, M. Okada, and N. Yamazaki, “Kinesiological aspects of bipedal walking in gibbons,” in The Lesser Apes: Evolution and Behavioral Biology, H. Preuschoft, D. J. Chivers, W. Y. Bruckelman, and N. Creel, Eds., pp. 135–145, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, UK, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  174. M. Okada, “Primate bipedal walking: comparative kinematics,” in Primate Morphophysiology, Locomotor Analyses, and Human Bipedalism, S. Kondo, H. Ishida, and T. Kimura, Eds., pp. 47–58, University of Tokyo Press, Tokyo, Japan, 1985. View at Google Scholar
  175. E. Hirasaki, H. Kumakura, and S. Matano, “Electromyography of 15 limb muscles in Japanese macaques (Macaca fuscata) during vertical climbing,” Folia primatologica, vol. 64, no. 4, pp. 218–224, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  176. E. Hirasaki, H. Kumarkura, and S. Matano, “Biomechanical analysis of vertical climbing in the spider monkey and the Japanese macaque,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 113, pp. 455–472, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  177. D. Meglan and F. Todd, “Kinetics of human walking,” in Human Walking, J. Rose and J. G. Gamble, Eds., pp. 73–99, Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, Md, USA, 2nd edition, 1994. View at Google Scholar
  178. D. Schmitt, “Mediolateral reaction forces and forelimb anatomy in quadrupedal primates: Implications for interpreting locomotor behavior in fossil primates,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 47–58, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  179. K. J. Carlson, B. Demes, and T. M. Franz, “Mediolateral forces associated with quadrupedal gaits of lemurids,” Journal of Zoology, vol. 266, no. 3, pp. 261–273, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  180. R. Wunderlich, Pedal form and plantar pressure distribution in anthropoid primates, Ph.D. thesis, State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY, USA, 1999.
  181. Y. Li, R. H. Crompton, R. M. Alexander, M. M. Guenther, and W. J. Wang, “Characteristics of ground reaction forces in normal and chimpanzee-like bipedal walking by humans,” Folia Primatologica, vol. 66, pp. 137–159, 1996. View at Google Scholar
  182. J. B. Hanna, S. Everett, and D. Schmitt, “Biomechanics of climbing in 4 species of prosimian, with special reference to lorises,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 141, no. 50, p. 122, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  183. N. Yamazaki and H. Ishida, “A biomechanical study of vertical climbing and bipedal walking in gibbons,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 13, no. 7, pp. 563–571, 1984. View at Google Scholar
  184. D. Schmitt and P. Lemelin, “Locomotor mechanics of the slender loris (Loris tardigradus),” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 47, no. 1-2, pp. 85–94, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  185. E. E. Vereecke, K. D'Août, and P. Aerts, “Speed modulation in hylobatid bipedalism: a kinematic analysis,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 51, no. 5, pp. 513–526, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  186. K. Isler, “Arboreal locomotion in wild black-and-white snub-nosed monkeys (Rhinopithecus bieti),” Folia Primatologica, vol. 77, no. 3, pp. 195–211, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  187. k. Isler, “Characteristics of vertical climbing in gibbons,” Evolutionary Anthropology, vol. 11, 1, pp. 49–52, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  188. K. Isler, “3D-kinematics of vertical climbing in hominoids,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 126, no. 1, pp. 66–81, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  189. J. M. DeSilva, Vertical climbing adaptations in the anthropoid ankle and midfoot: implications for locomotion in Miocene catarrhines and Plio-pleistocene hominins, Ph.D. thesis, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich, USA, 2008.
  190. J. M. DeSilva, “Functional morphology of the ankle and the likelihood of climbing in early hominins,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 106, pp. 6567–6572, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  191. J. B. Hanna, “Kinematics of vertical climbing in lorises and Cheirogaleus medius,” Journal of Human Evolution, vol. 50, no. 4, pp. 469–478, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  192. G. P. Rauwerdink, “Muscle fibre and tendon lengths in primate extremities,” in Hands of Primates, H. Preuschoft and D. J. Chivers, Eds., pp. 207–223, Springer, New York, NY, USA, 1993. View at Google Scholar
  193. W. K. Gregory, The Anatomy of the Gorilla, Columbia University Press, New York, NY, USA, 1950.
  194. K. L. Rafferty and C. B. Ruff, “Articular structure and function in Hylobates, Colobus, and Papio,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 94, no. 3, pp. 395–408, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  195. B. Demes and M. M. Günther, “Biomechanics and allometric scaling in primate locomotion and morphology,” Folia Primatologica, vol. 53, no. 1–4, pp. 125–141, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  196. S. L. Washburn, “The analysis of primate evolution with particular reference to the origin of man,” in Origin and Evolution of Man: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology, vol. 15, pp. 67–78, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, NY, USA, 1950. View at Google Scholar
  197. R. H. Tuttle, “Parallelism, brachiation and hominid phylogeny,” in Phylogeny of the Primates. A Multidisciplinary Approach, W. P. Luckett and F. S. Szalay, Eds., pp. 447–480, Plenum Press, New York, NY, USA, 1975. View at Google Scholar
  198. M. Cartmill and K. Milton, “The lorisiform wrist joint and the evolution of 'brachiating' adaptations in the Hominoidea,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 47, no. 2, pp. 249–272, 1977. View at Google Scholar
  199. J. H. Prost, “Origin of bipedalism,” American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 175–189, 1980. View at Google Scholar
  200. J. G. Fleagle, J. T. Stern Jr, W. L. Jungers, and R. L. Susman, “Climbing: a biomechanical link with brachiation and with bipedalism,” Symposium of the Zoological Society of London, vol. 48, pp. 359–375, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  201. R. H. Tuttle, “Evolution of hominid bipedalism and prehensile capabilities,” Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, vol. 292, pp. 89–94, 1981. View at Google Scholar
  202. B. Senut, “Climbing as a crucial preadaptation for human bipedalism,” International Journal of Skeletal Research, vol. 14, pp. 35–44, 1988. View at Google Scholar