Anatomy Research International / 2011 / Article / Tab 1

Research Article

Hip Anatomy and Ontogeny of Lower Limb Musculature in Three Species of Nonhuman Primates

Table 1

Muscle group mass (g) averages and ratios of hind limb musculature in adult and infant C. medius and G. moholi.

Muscle group1C. mediusG. moholi

AdultsInfantsAdultsInfants
𝑛 = 4 𝑛 = 5 Ratio1 𝑛 = 4 𝑛 = 4 Ratio
AverageAverageAverageAverageAverageAverage
(range)(range)(range)(range)(range)(range)

Iliopsoas0.38 0.0042100.00.350.01326.9
(0.25–0.50)(65.8–131.6)(0.21–0.46)(0.0130–0.0132)(15.9–35.4)
Gluteals30.860.012568.80.650.02032.5
(0.41–1.21)(0.005–0.019)(21.6–242.0)(0.43–0.86)(0.016–0.023)(18.7–53.8)
Small Hip Lat. Rotators0.17β€”β€”0.250.00735.7
(0.07–0.30)β€”β€”(0.12–0.40)(0.005–0.009)(13.3–80.0)
hamstrings0.980.01189.01.350.04033.8
(0.31–1.58)(0.005–0.014)(21.8–343.7)(0.52–1.92)(0.025–0.055)(9.40–76.6)
sartorius0.140.00270.00.500.00862.5
(0.11–0.18)(0.001–0.003)(33.2–361.0)(0.03–1.70)(0.006–0.011)(2.5–267.3)
quadriceps1.180.01769.45.480.10950.3
(0.47–1.57)(0.013–0.023)(21.0–119.7)(4.44–6.00)(0.085–0.124)(35.8–70.4)
hip adductors0.680.00885.00.980.01854.4
(0.28–1.26)(0.003–0.013)(22.6–369.6)(0.46–1.83)(0.017–0.019)(24.8–106.1)
superficial ankle flexors0.400.01040.00.630.01933.2
(0.19–0.57)(0.005–0.016)(12.0–123.8)(0.50–0.92)(0.013–0.025)(20.0–69.4)
deep ankle flexors0.450.00675.00.410.01822.8
(0.32–0.65)(0.003–0.008)(42.4–215.8)(0.33–0.49)(0.006–0.023)(14.5–76.3)
anterior comp. leg0.440.00588.00.370.01328.5
(0.28–0.81)(0.003–0.010)(27.2–269.0)(0.20–0.59)(0.005–0.020)(10.2–128.3)
lateral comp. leg0.270.00390.00.260.00832.5
(0.15–0.39)(0.001–0.050)(30.2–394.0)(0.21–0.34)(0.007–0.013)(15.6–48.1)
Body mass4156121318013.413.4

1Average adult mm mass/average infant mm mass.
2This muscle could be reliably removed in only a single perinatal specimen of C. medius.
3gluteals: gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, gluteus superficialis ant., tensor fasciae femoris, iliopsoas; hamstrings: flexor cruris lateralis, semitendinosus, semimembranosus; quadriceps: rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus medialis, vastus lateralis; adductors: pectineus, adductor brevis, adductor longus, adductor magnus (presemimembranosus*), gracilis; anterior compartment leg: tibialis anterior, extensor digitorum longus, extensor hallucis longus, abductor hallucis longus*; superficial flexors: gastrocnemius, soleus, plantaris; deep flexors: peroneotibialis, flexor fibularis, tibialis posterior, flexor tibialis; lateral compartment: peroneus brevis, peroneus longus, peroneus digiti quarti, peroneus digiti quinti,* (*, if present).
4 data from Kappeler and Pereira [23].

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