Anatomy Research International / 2013 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Root Anatomy and Root Canal Configuration of Human Permanent Mandibular Premolars: A Systematic Review

Table 1

Summary of the incidence of documented ethnic and population variations in the anatomy of mandibular first premolars.

Geographic and ethnic
distribution
Materials
and
methods
No. of teeth
in the study
( )
Root anatomyRoot canal anatomyRoot canal configuration (Vertucci)Apical foramina
References
1 root2 roots>2 roots1 canal2 canals>2 canalsC-shapedType IType IIType IIIType IVType VType VIType VIIType VIIIOthers types123

Caucasian
FranceIn vitro: radiograph and sectioning34190.6% (309)6.4% (22)3% (10)68.9% (235)31.1% (106)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
Geider et al. [4], 1989
GermanyIn vitro: examination236999.3% (2352)0.7% (17)0%
(0)
Schulze. [5], 1970
PolandIn vitro: extraction and RCT8389.3% (74)10.7% (9)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
Rózyło et al. [6], 2008
USAIn vitro: clearing400100% (400)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
70% (280)25% (100)5% (20)0%
(0)
70% (280)0%
(0)
4% (16)1.5% (6)24% (96)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
74% (296)26% (104)0%
(0)
Vertucci [7], 1894
In vivo: radiographic examination100281.8% (820)18.2% (182)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
Sabala et al. [8], 1994
In vitro: grinding and examination under magnification5086% (43)14%
(7)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
90% (45)10% (5)0%
(0)
Green [9], 1973
In vitro: sectioning10674% (78)26% (28)0%
(0)
14%
(15)
76% (80)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
24% (26)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
76% (80)24% (26)0%
(0)
Baisden et al. [10], 1992
In vitro: sectioning32100% (32)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
35.5% (12)62.5% (20)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
Barrett. [11], 1925
Extraction and radiograph128766.9%
(861)
32.7%
(421)
0.4% (5)0%
(0)
80.7% (1039)19.3% (248)0%
(0)
Zillich and Dowson [12], 1973
In vitro: radiographs15695.5% (149)4.5%
(7)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
Mueller et al. [13], 1933
In vivo: radiographic examination40094.5% (378)5.5% (22)0%
(0)
86.3% (345)13.7% (55)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
Trope et al. [14], 1986
Subgroup Ethnic Incidence622696.88%  
(3471)
2.52%  
(61)
0.6%  
(10)
75.42%
(2586)
23.84%  
(935)
0.54%  
(25)
1.4%  
(15)
73%  
(360)
2%  
(16)
12.75  
(32)
12%  
(96)
80%  
(1490)
20%  
(383)

African
African AmericanIn vivo:
radiographic examination
40083.8% (335)16.2% (65)0%
(0)
67.2% (269)32.8% (131)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
Zillich and Dowson [12], 1973
SenegaleseIn vivo:
radiographic examination
41281.3% (335)15.1% (62)3.6% (15)0%
(0)
Mbaye et al. [15], 2008
Subgroup Ethnic Incidence81283.8%  
(335)
16.2%
(65)
74%
(604)
23.95%
(193)
1.8%
(15)
Indian
IndiaIn vitro: SCT10080% (80)11%
(11)
0%
(0)
2%
(2)
80% (80)9%
(9)
3%
(3)
2%
(2)
4%
(4)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
2%
(2)
94% (94)6%
(6)
0%
(0)
Sandhya et al. [16], 2010
In vivo: radiographic examination100095.9% (959)3.9% (39)0.2% (2)75.4% (754)1% (10)0%
(0)
20.8% (208)2.4% (24)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0.4%
(4)
0%
(0)
76.4% (764)23.2% (232)0.4% (4)Iyer et al. [17], 2006
In vitro: clearing10072% (72)27% (27)0%
(0)
1%
(1)
72% (72)6%
(6)
3%
(3)
10% (10)8%
(8)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
82% (82)18% (18)0%
(0)
Velmurugan and Sandhya [18], 2009
In vitro: clearing4050% (20)50% (20)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
50% (20)5%
(2)
5%
(2)
25% (10)12.5% (5)2.5% (1)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
82% (82)18% (18)0%
(0)
Parekh et al. [19], 2011
In vitro: clearing13897.1% (134)2.89% (4)0%
(0)
67% (92)33% (46)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
67.4% (92)8%
(11)
3.7% (5)3.9% (5)17.4% (24)0.7% (1)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
77.8% (107)22.2% (31)0%
(0)
Jain and Bahuguna [20], 2011
In vitro: SCT11296.4% (108)3.4% (4)0%
(0)
70.5%
(79)
29.5%
(33)
0%
(0)
10.7%
(12)
80%
(90)
9%
(10)
3%
(3)
2%
(2)
4%
(4)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
98% (110)2%
(2)
0%
(0)
V. K. Sikri and P. Sikri [21], 1994
Subgroup Ethnic Incidence149096.47%  
(1201)
3.4%  
(47)
0.07%  
(2)
68%  
(343)
30%  
(137)
0%3%  
(15)
71%  
(1108)
6%  
(48)
3%  
(16)
11%  
(237)
8%  
(69)
0.53%  
(2)
0.06%  
(4)
0.33  
(2)
85%  
(1239)
15%  
(307)
0.07%  
(4)

Mongoloid
ChinaIn vitro: radiographs10064% (64)34% (34)2%
(2)
0%
(0)
78% (78)6%`
(6)
6%
(6)
10% (10)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
90% (90)10% (10)0%
(0)
Walker [22], 1988
In vitro: radiograph and sectioning8254% (44)46% (38)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
Lu et al. [23], 2006
In vitro: Micro-CT11565.2% (75)26.1% (40)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
65.2% (75)0%
(0)
2.6% (3)0%
(0)
22.6% (26)0%
(0)
0.9% (1)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
76.5% (88)23.5% (27)0%
(0)
Liu et al. [24], 2013
In vivo: CBCT17898% (174)2%
(4)
0%
(0)
87.1% (155)11.2% (20)0.6% (1)1.1%
(2)
86.8% (151)0%
(0)
1.7% (3)0%
(0)
9.8% (17)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0.6%
(1)
0%
(0)
89.6% (160)9.8% (17)0.6%
(1)
Tian et al. [25], 2012
In vivo: CBCT9783.5% (81)12.4% (12)0%
(0)
4.1%
(4)
83.5% (81)0%
(0)
3.6% (3)0%
(0)
8.8% (8)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
91.2% (88)8.8% (9)0%
(0)
Liao et al. [26], 2011
In vivo: CBCT44099.5% (439)0.5% (1)0%
(0)
75.2% (340)21% (92)0.7% (3)1.1%
(5)
76% (335)3.4% (15)2.7% (12)6.6% (21)9.3% (41)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0.7%
(3)
0%
(0)
83.4% (367)15.9% (70)0.7%
(3)
Tian et al. [27], 2013
In vitro: Micro-CT35824%
(86)
Fan et al. [28], 2008
JapanIn vitro: radiographs51686.2% (445)13.8% (71)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
Miyoshi et al. [29], 1977
In vitro: Staining13980.6% (112)15.1% (21)4.3% (6)0%
(0)
80.6% (112)19.4% (27)0%
(0)
Yoshioka et al. [30], 2004
KoreaIn vivo: CBCT79799.9% (796)0.1% (1)0%
(0)
Park et al. [31], 2013
Subgroup Ethnic Incidence282299%  
(1409)
1%  
(6)
74.5%  
(1311)
22.5%  
(328)
.95%  
(12)
3.7%  
(97)
78%  
(720)
0.85%  
(21)
3%  
(27)
3.32%  
(31)
10.1%  
(92)
0.18%  
(1)
0.74%  
(4)
85%  
(905)
15%  
(160)
0.65%  
(4)

Middle East
KuwaitIn vivo: radiograph of RCT teeth2085.0% (17)15% (3)0%
(0)
60%
(12)
40%
(8)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
60% (12)40% (8)0%
(0)
Zaatar et al. [32], 1997
JordanIn vitro: clearing50097% (485)3% (15)0%
(0)
58.2% (291)39.8% (195)2.6% (13)0%
(0)
58.2% (251)4.8%
(24)
1.4%
(7)
14.4% (72)16.8% (84)0.8%
(4)
1%
(5)
0%
(0)
2.6%
(5)
Awawdeh and Al-Qudah [33], 2008
IranIn vitro: sectioning217100% (217)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
88.47% (192)11.53%
(25)
0%
(0)
1.4%
(3)
90%
(195)
1.8% (4)3.2%
(7)
0.9% (2)4.1% (9)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
0%
(0)
93.8%
(203)
5%
(11)
1.2%
(3)
Khedmat et al. [34], 2010
In vitro: clearing16398% (160)2% (3)0%
(0)
70.6% (115)27.8% (45)1.2%
(2)
2.4%
(4)
70.6% (113)1.9%
(3)
3.8%
(6)
3.8%
(6)
16.9% (27)1.2%
(2)
0.6%
(1)
0%
(0)
1.2%
(2)
77.5%
(126)
22.5%
(37)
0%
(0)
Rahimi et al. [35], 2007
TurkeyIn vitro: clearing100100% (100)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
64% (64)30% (30)5%
(6)
0%
(0)
75% (75)25% (25)0%
(0)
Çalişkan et al. [36], 1995
In vitro: clearing20060.5% (121)39.5% (69)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
60.6% (121)18.5% (37)10.5% (21)7% (14)2.5% (5)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
1%
(2)
0%
(0)
89.5% (179)9.5% (19)1%
(2)
Sert and Bayirli [37], 2004
Subgroup Ethnic Incidence120096%  
(979)
6.67%  
(21)
67%  
(795)
31%  
(372)
1.46%  
(21)
0.63%  
(7)
69.85%  
(680)
6.75%  
(68)
4.73%  
(41)
6.53%  
(94)
9.85%  
(125)
0.5%  
(6)
0.4%  
(6)
0.25%  
(2)
0.95%  
(7)
79%  
(595)
20%  
(100)
0.44%  
(5)

Hispanic
MexicoIn vitro: radiograph20279.3% (140)25.8% (62)0%
(0)
0%
(0)
74.2% (150)25.8 (52)0%
(0)
Pineda and Kuttler [38], 1972

Total no of teeth1275273952001260702027731812868137100394382871094349100213
Overall Incidence (%]97.21  
(%)
2.63  
(%)
0.16  
(%)
73.55  
(%)
23.55  
(%)
0.91  
(%)
2  
(%)
72.6  
(%)
3.73  
(%)
2.72  
(%)
10.72  
(%)
10.4  
(%)
0.22  
(%)
0.19  
(%)
0.27  
(%)
0.24  
(%)
81.08  
(%)
18.68  
(%)
0.24  
(%)

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